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World Religion Scrapbook
Transcript of World Religion Scrapbook
was the result of the mixed Indus Valley civilization and Aryan beliefs.
Spiritual leaders in the Hindu faith are called priests, or to them, Brahmins. Founders and Spiritual
Leaders The Hindu faith has many sacred texts and objects. The texts include the Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Upanishads. Sacred Texts and Objects The Mahabharata was one of the Hindu epic poems. It included the Bhagavad Gita and told many stories. One of these was the story of the Kurukshetra War, between the royal families the Kauravas and Pandavas, who fought over the throne. The Gita tells about how, on the battlefield before the war began, the god Krishna told the prince and warrior Arjuna to not be sad about killing his cousins, the Kauravas. He said they would be reborn in the cycle of samsara, and so Arjuna would not be killing them forever, just in their current form. Mahabharata The Upanishads were a collection of sacred writings explaining how to escape Samsara. Upanishads Ramayana was another Hindu epic poem. It told of how the god Rama heroically rescued his wife, Ravana, from the evil demon king. Ramayana Gods, Goddesses, Temples and Shrines Brahman was the main god in the Hindu religion. Though Hindus believed in many gods, they also believed all of these other gods were manifestations or incarnations of this one Brahman. Brahman Brahman had three main manifestations:
Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva The Three Main Manifestations Brahma Brahma was the creator manifestation of Brahman. Brahma's four faces represent the
sacred knowledge of the four
Vedas: Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva, showing that He is therefore the
source of all knowledge about the creation of the universe.
His four arms represent the four directions: north, south, east, and west.
Brahma's four hands represent the four aspects of human personality: mind (back right hand), intellect (back left hand), ego (front right hand), and the practical self or conditioned consciousness (front left hand).
The rosary symbolizes the time cycle through which the world moves through Samsara, and also symbolizes the materials used in the process of creation. The book in His back hand (symbolizing the intellect) illustrates that right knowledge is important for any kind of creative work. A water pot (kamandalu) in His front left hand symbolizes the cosmic energy through which Brahma brings the universe into existence. Brahma's Qualities His front right hand, symbolizing ego, is
shown in the pose of giving grace.
The color gold represents activity, and
the lotus symbolizes the Supreme
Reality, the essence of all things and
beings in the universe. Vishnu Vishnu was the preserver / protector manifestation of Brahman. Vishnu's Qualities Vishnu's two front arms signify His activity in the physical world while His two back arms represent His activity in the spiritual world. The right side of His body represents the activities of the mind and the intellect., whereas the left side symbolizes the activities of the heart, such as love, kindness, and compassion. The conch in His upper left hand shows that He communicates through love and understanding. A chakra in His upper right hand conveys the idea that He uses this weapon to protect His devotees from evil. His front right hand is shown giving grace to His devotees. The snake behind Him represents the mind, and the thousand heads of that snake signify the many desires and passions of an individual. The blue color, such as that of the sky behind Him, symbolizes infinity, His body being
blue shows that he has an
infinite amount of
attributes. Shiva Shiva was the destroyer manifestation of Brahman. Shiva's Qualities While Shiva has the words "destroyer" and "destruction" associated with His name, He is rather the god in charge of Samsara. Lord Shiva is also the Lord of mercy and compassion. He protects His devotees from evil forces such as lust, greed, and anger. Since He has so many tasks, Shiva cannot be symbolized in just one form. Because of this, the images of Shiva vary significantly in their symbolism. The picture here includes the symbolism listed below.
As the master of yoga, Shiva's matted locks of hair represent idea that integration of the physical, mental and spiritual energies is the ideal of yoga. The Ganges River behind Him signifies that He destroys sin, removes ignorance, and bestows knowledge, purity and peace on His devotees. His half-open eyes convey the idea that creation is going through cycles, referred to in the Hindu belief as Samsara, with no beginning and no end. Two Kundalas, or earrings, in Vishnu's ears signify that He has many sides. The snake around His neck symbolizes the yogic power Lord Shiva holds, with which He dissolves and recreates the universe in the cyclical samsara. The three coils of the snake symbolize the past, present and future. His necklace shows that he is uncompromising in his laws, which, in turn, maintains order in the Universe.
The tiger skin symbolizes potential energy,
and Shiva, sitting on the tiger skin,
illustrates the idea that He is the
source of the creative energy. Temples and Shrines Hindu followers could either go to the temple or worship gods or goddesses at shrines in their homes. Temples Hindu temples are called Mandirs, and are each dedicated to one god or goddess. Shrines Hindu devotees have shrines at which they could worship inside their homes. Also, there are even a few on some street corners at which devotees could pray. Rituals In Temple Hindus have many rituals, especially in Temple. These include devotees taking off their shoes upon entrance, and women covering their heads as a sign of respect. Also, devotees bring offerings called Prasads, which consist of flowers, fruits, and incense, brought to the statue of the god or goddess the temple is dedicated to. Weddings Wedding rituals include several days of joyous ceremonies and festivals, plus a generous amount of feasting. After Death After death, bodies are cremated, as it is believed the fire would carry the souls on to be reborn. Rituals are meaningful, scheduled, consistent routine, taking place at a set time and place; they reinforce the tenets of a religion. Lighting a Lamp The light from the candle symbolizes knowledge, and also darkness; ignorance.
Brahman is the source, the one who shows all knowledge. Hence light is worshiped as the Lord himself. Religious holiday, festivals, and ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremonies are held in various locations almost everyday, but nobody can possibly attend them all. Chronology:
Historic Timeline The Hindu faith has many religious holidays, festivals, and ceremonies, including Diwali, Holi, and Dussehra Samskaras 2800-2000 B.C.E. -
The Indus Valley
established 800-300 B.C.E. -
The 11 major Upanishads are written, which include the ideas of reincarnation and karma Samskaras mark important events in a Hindu’s life.
For Example, ten days after a baby’s birth is a naming ceremony, and then boys at the age of nine or ten who are from top three castes are honored with sacred thread to mark becoming a man. Statues Another ceremony is honoring sacred statues, such as the ones in mandirs, or temples of the Hindu faith. 1200-900 B.C.E. -
Early Vedic Period - earliest Vedas are compiled. Diwali Diwali is the Hindu festival of lights, and is held in late October and early November. Holi Holi is the Hindu festival marking the beginning of spring, and is held in March or April. Dussehra Dussehra is the Hindu
Rama’s triumph over
evil in the epic poem
Ramayana, and is held
in September. Different Versions, or Sects, or Hinduism Hindu tolerates people studying
various different gods and there are
no specific times you have to
worship them.Some Hindus believe in no gods, while some believe in one god, such as Brahman, and others believe in many gods, or manifestations of Brahman. Samsara While Hindu as a faith is very tolerant and has many different sects, all of these sects believe in Samsara. Beliefs, Ethics, and Instilled
Morals and Values Beliefs and
Instilled Values Hinduism has a few key terms regarding their belief in life after death, and just in general. Samsara Samsara is the cycle
of birth and rebirth, which means that the Hindu religion says that when
you die, your
soul is reborn
in another body, which can be
human or animal. Karma Karma is basically
how you are reborn, meaning your jobs when you are reborn, and is dependant on your actions in your
previous life. Example selfishness vs. selflessness doing good leads to good karma while doing bad leads to bad Dharma Dharma is righteous or moral conduct which puts you on the road to good karma. It is also what you are supposed to accomplish throughout your lifetime. Moksha Moksha is breaking free of Samsara, or gaining liberty or freedom from the cycle of rebirth. Nirvana Nirvana: joining or becoming one with Brahman. The Hindu Philosophy The Hindu Philosophy is the belief in Hinduism that there is one divine reality, and that all religions are just different interpretations of it. This belief is what allows Hinduism as a religion to be so accepting of various beliefs within the one religion. Laws and orders, rules and commandments There is no set of rules or book of laws for being Hindu. The only type of rules for being Hindu is the caste system. The Caste System The caste system is the Hindu version of social classes. The Caste System 1) Brahmins, or priests
2) Kshatriyas, or warriors and rulers
3) Vaisyas, or skilled traders, merchants, and minor officials
4) Sudras, or unskilled workers
5) Pariah or Harijans, or outcasts/ untouchables Works Cited Hindu Symbols Hinduism Followers Around the World Om (or Aum) The syllable Om is composed of the three sounds: a-u-m, and the symbol's three folds are central to its meaning. these represent several important threesomes: the three worlds - earth, atmosphere, and heaven; the three major Hindu gods - Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; and the three sacred Vedic scriptures - Rig, Yajur, and Sama
Thus Om mystically embodies the essence of the entire universe. Swastika The swastika (Sanskrit svastika, or "all is well") is a symbol often used in Hinduism, meaning good fortune, luck and well-being. It is often carried as a charm to bring good luck to its bearer, and also has a variety of religious meanings and uses. Right - hand Swastika The right - hand swastika is one of the 108 symbols of the god Vishnu as well as a symbol of the sun. It also imitates, in the rotation of its arms, the sun's daily course, which appears in the Northern Hemisphere to pass from east, then south, to west. Left - hand Swastika Though it is not usually used in Hinduism, the left-hand swastika (called a sauvastika) usually represents the terrifying goddess Kali, the goddess of night and magic. However, this form of the swastika is not necessarily "evil." Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva 500 B.C.E-1000 C.E. -
Epics and Puranas are written, reflecting the rise of devotional movements dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Devi. Morals Achieving good karma and dharma requires you to have a good moral conduct. Good Moral Conduct Includes . . . ~ Not eating meat, as animals, especially bulls, are sacred
~ Revering the upper castes, or considering them to be your superiors
~ Marrying inside your caste
~ Trying not to kill or injure anything because everything is a part of Brahman World Religion Scrapbook By Adele McLees Currently, around the world, there are approximately 900 million Hinduism followers. Around 1.22 million of these are located in the United States. Sacred Objects Hindu sacred objects or things include cows / bulls, statues of goddesses and gods (mainly inside temples), and the sacred Ganges river, at which it is believed the Kurukshetra war took place. Ganeri, Anita. Religions Explained: A beginner's Guide to World Faiths. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1997.
Thomas, Dennis. "Introduction to Hinduism." Lecture. Atlanta: Atlanta Girls School, 2012. 0.
Kashmiri Overseas Association USA, Inc. Kashmir Hindu Dieties. 2012. 12 October 2012 <http://www.koausa.org/Gods/>.Mamandram Magazine. World Hindu Population. 3 October 2008. 12 October 2012 <http://ww.mamandram.org/magazine/2008/10/world-hindu-population/>.Religion Facts. Timeline of Hinduism. 2 December 2008. 12 October 2012 <http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/timeline.htm>. Buddhism History
and Origins Rituals
Art Current Events Summary Works Cited Sects The two main sects of Buddhism are the Theravada and the Mahayana Theravada Mahayana Timeline Important Dates and Events The way of monks and nuns, the Theravada sect very closely follows the original teachings of Buddha, and requires devoting your entire life to the hard spiritual work that are the original practices of the religion. It spread to Sri Lanka and southeastern Asia. The development of the Mahayana sect made it easier for common people to practice Buddhism. It pictured Buddha and other holy beings as compassionate gods and described an afterlife filled with heavens and hells. This sect spread to China, Korea, Japan, and Tibet. Origins and Spread The Four Noble Truths The Four Noble Truths are a set
of rules or guidelines that explain how to end suffering and reach Nirvana. The Eightfold
Path The Eightfold Path explains, the last step to end one's suffering, and therefore reach Nirvana. 1. All life is suffering
2. The cause of suffering is desire and greed
3. There is an end to suffering
4. To end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path The Eightfold Path 1. Right understanding (of the Buddha’s teachings)
2. Right attitude (positive thinking)
3. Right speech (not telling lies)
4. Right action (helping others)
5. Right work (doing a useful job)
6. Right effort (doing good things)
7. Right mindfulness (thinking before you speak or act)
8. Right meditation (developing a calm, happy mind) Lotus Flower Swastika Wheel of Dharma Mandalas In Buddhism, the lotus flower represents spiritual perfection and mental purity. In Buddhism, the swastika represents good fortune and Buddha's footprints and his heart. Also, the word is derived from the Sanskrit word svastika, meaning "well-being and good fortune." Its rotational orientation represents the many dynamics and the circular shape of the universe. Spread Monks and Nuns The Dalai Lama
versus China Nirvana Nirvana is the goal of every Buddhist,
and can be achieved through following an extremely moral life and through meditation. It is ultimate enlightenment, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth, making you equal to Buddha. Also, Buddhism gives everyone the hope of reaching nirvana in their lifetime, not just the upperclassmen, as there is no caste system in the Buddhist faith. Life as a Buddhist The Afterlife A Buddhist's afterlife involves nirvana. Also, in the Mahayana sect and as previously mentioned, several heavens and hells are described. Buddhists are required to live very moral lives. They follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, along with the Middle Path, all of which will be explained later in this Prezi. The Five Precepts The Five Precepts were another set of guidelines that help to guide Buddhists to lead a moral lifestyle each and every day. 1. Do not harm or kill living things
2. Do not take things unless they are freely given
3. Lead a decent life
4. Do not speak unkindly or tell lies
5. Do not take drugs or drink alcohol The Middle Way The Middle Way is the idea that to achieve nirvana you must live a life between being devoted to self-indulgence and a life devoted to self-denial (between extremes), leading to living in the moment, and living in moderation. Dharma In Buddhism, dharma is the path Buddha reveals as the one leading to the discovery of one's treasure within themselves - his teachings, the teachings of Buddha. Moksha In Buddhism, Moksha is attaining freedom from the cycle of rebirth and is part of Nirvana. Around 563 B.C.E:
Gautama is born Around 483 B.C.E:
Buddha dies 1949 C.E:
China July 6, 1935 C.E:
the 14th Dalai Lama, is born The Wheel of Dharma is a Buddhist symbol that stands for the Eightfold Path, where each of the eight spokes of the wheel represent a different lesson taught by Buddha. Mandalas are devices used to aid meditation. Loosely translated to "circle" from the Indian language Sanskrit, they also represent wholeness. Longchenpa, a major Tibetan Buddhist teacher, once said, "A mandala is... An integrated structure organized around a
unifying center." Places
Worship Temples and Shrines Buddhist shrines and temples are places that Buddhists can visit to pay their respects to Buddha or meditate alongside other Buddhists. Also, some Buddhists have personal shrines inside their homes. Stupas Stupas are the first ten Buddhist shrines. They are dome-shaped mounds and were originally constructed to contain the Buddha’s ashes. United States There are an estimated 1.2 million Buddhist practitioners in the U.S.A. World There are an estimated 400 million Buddhist practitioners in the world. Buddhism is spreading and becoming more popular in the U.S. In the Buddhist religion, Nuns and Monks
meditate, practice self-awareness, and give up
many possessions, giving themselves and devoting their lives completely to the extreme Buddhist’s life and practices. This also involves giving up marriage. Lastly, Buddhist Monks have recently been dedicating their brains to research during meditaiton. Doctor Zoran Josipovic has been conducting these studies and said, "Meditation research, particularly in the last 10 years or so, has shown to be very promising because it points to an ability of the brain to change and optimise in a
way we didn't know previously was possible." The Tibetans always respected the Chinese and their power, but never regarded Tibet as a part of China, despite who ruled. Now, the Tibetans suffer under the Chinese and are not treated well. The Chinese claim the Tibetans don't treat them well either, but this claim is not supported. The Dalai Lama believes that if they had followed a positive, constructive path rather than the negative, destructive path they have been following they would be in a better place. Hundreds of Buddhist monasteries have been destroyed and thousands of monks have been either arrested or killed. The Dalai Lama now lives in exile with thousands of his followers, and he travels around the world, publicizing his country’s suffering under the Chinese. 320 C.E:
Golden Age of
India, begins 278 C.E:
to Buddhism 1391 C.E:
was born Maurya Empire and Asoka The Maurya empire united India from 321 B.C.E. to 185 B.C.E. Asoka, the grandson of the founder of the Maurya, was expanding the Maurya Empire to the Deccan region, but in the Kilinga War thousands died, and he didn’t like it, so he stopped conquering and converted to Buddhism. He later went on to send missionaries to Sri Lanka to convert it to Buddhism, coaxed instead of conquered by setting up pillars announcing righteous government and laws, and built shrines, rest houses, roads, hospitals, wells, and planted crops. The Life of Buddha The Gupta Dynasty The Gupta Dynasty was the Golden
Age of India. During it, there was a strong central government with a mild nature, but power was given to individuals. There were elections, no taxes, no corporal punishment, and crops thrived. In math, the decimal 10 system was developed, along with the concept of zero and Arabic numerals. Lastly, in medics, herbs were used, simple surgeries were performed, bones were set,and a vaccination against smallpox was developed. (Buddhist temple) (Buddhist shrine) The Buddhist religion impacted the world in
many ways. Buddha brought to light ideas that explain and give thought to how to end suffering for people. During the Gupta Dynasty, many valuable advances that we still use today were made, in the areas of math and medics. Practiced by many, Buddhism has brought practioners peace, self-mindfulness and understanding, and it promises to bring many advances in science and medicine, as the major meditaion component is proving to better the mind and brain. Buddha was born as a prince of high status, with the original name of Siddhartha Gautama, in Nepal in 566 B.C.E. Upon birth, he was prophesized to be either a great king or a wandering holy man, and his father provided him with all luxuries to attempt to keep him in the palace to becoming a king, but it didn't work. Upon his son's request to leave the palace, Siddhartha's father had the area around the palace cleaned of all evidence of suffering. Eventually, Siddhartha traveled on four journeys beyond his father's reign. On these journeys, he saw an old man, realizing we all age, a sick man, realizing we all can get sick, a corpse, realizing we are all mortal and will eventually die, and finally a beggar, realizing that he gave up everything to seek answers. These journeys compelled Siddhartha to leave the luxurious life in the palace to find a world in which nobody suffers. After many days of travel, he sat under a Bodhi tree. He stayed there, meditating, for 48 days and nights, until finally, he became Buddha, the enlightened one. After this, Buddha taught for the rest of his life, until he died from food poisoningat the age of 80 years old. Marriage and Society Marriage Rituals Society There is no caste system in Buddhism, giving any practitioner the hope of achieving nirvana, possibly in their own lifetime. In Buddhist marriage, both individuals are not required to be Buddhist, as the faith is very accepting of other religoins. Also, there are no religious laws stating that a couple is required to have children, and Buddhist monks do not marry. Lastly, the Five Precepts previously mentioned also serve as the framework for a happy marriage. God The Buddha didn’t want to be worshipped as a god – he rather wanted his teachings to be a guide to living. The Theravada sect doesn’t worship him as a god, but rather follow his original teachings closely, as was Buddha's original wish, but the Mahayana sect does worship him as a god. This is because, in having a god to pray to and a heaven, Buddhism is easier for ordinary people to follow. This is because people will have a holy figure to pray to and a holy place to return to after death, where they can joing and be equal with Buddha (after achieving enlightenment).
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BBC News. BBC, 24 Apr. 2011. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-12661646>. (Theravada Monks) This is a staute of Buddha that Buddhists can pray to.