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The Aztec Empire
Transcript of The Aztec Empire
-King and his family-King often wore headdress made of feathers
-Government officials, priests, and high ranking warriors-priests thought to be able to communicate with the gods
-Commoners-most commonly merchants and artisans; merchants sold, artisans made
-Slaves-treated poorly;used for sacrifices Government - The King led the society.
- Owned around 3,000 servants
- Was in control of law, trade, tribute, warfare.
- Below the king were nobles, priests, warriors.
- Warriors were greatly respected.
- Warriors captured people to be sacrificed
- Below warriors, priests, and nobles were merchants and artisans.
- Merchants sold goods that artisans created.
- At very bottom were peasants and slaves, 80 - 90% of society.
- Slaves below peasants, had many rights.
- Could own other slaves, did not pass down title & could work to be free.
- Slaves often sacrificed. Economy - Lots of trade was included in Aztec economy.
- Aztec people paid in food, cacao, gems, stones, cotton, cloth, animal skins, shells, building materials, even soldiers.
- Tax collectors stationed around city.
- Warriors, priests, nobles, etc. were paid in these goods and tribute.
- Commoners were workers; pochteca were highest class of workers who led caravans to far places and served as spies.
- Pochteca had their own God and paid taxes in rare goods.
- Below Pochteca were craftspeople and artisans.
- Lowest workers were peasants and slaves
-30% of people were peasants who hired their work to nobles
- Slaves were the lowest class; had rights but were not respected.
- Food was important and the main source of food was maize.
- Markets brought in money for families and the government; also had a social purpose Achievements -created causeways - raised roads across water or wet ground
-used chinampas - a bed of soil formed by piling boulders and mud on a mat to made of reeds. The people then tied the mat to wooden posts and drove the posts into a lake
-chinampas were used for planting crops on water because they didn't have fertile soil
-three causeways connected Tenochtitlan to mainlands and served as trading routes
-used Mayan calendar (365 days)
-priests used 260 day calendar to predict lucky days
-Sun Stone is a very beautifully carved sculpture that is a calendar
-there were gifted painters and sculptors
-Aztecs were great architects. They built many advanced temples, pyramids, and houses
-spoken language considered an art
-had a very rich vocabulary -Aztec empire arose in the valley of Mexico, a fertile area about 8 thousand feet above sea level
-reclaimed land from lake by sinking timbers into the water to serve as walls and filling in the area between timbers with mud, boulders, and reeds (also known as chinampas)
-very hot and humid
-mountains served as barriers from oncoming attackers
-land provided many different minerals
-some of land was on island in the middle of saltwater lake Texcoco
-received lots of rain
-had lots of deserts, plains, and jungle The End Adam Nivinski, Levi Bare, and Kai Fox
Period 2 Social class Education Calmecac Telpuchcalli School for nobles; learned about codices and religion. Were taught to read and write. School primarily for boys. Also military school. School for commoners. Were not taught to read and write. They learned orally. Learned about history, religion, music, and citizenship. Kids were home schooled until the age of ten; then they went to public school. Religion Polytheistic-believed in multiple gods
One of the most revered gods was Quetzalcoatl, who was originally a Teohuacan god
Practiced human sacrifice
Priests ran all ceremonies-including sacrifice
Believed only priests could communicate with the gods
Temples were very important;basically offering mound
Shaped like pyramids Food Primary food source was maize
Aztec cooks used maize in nearly every food item First Aztecs were hunter-gatherers
Took refuge with the Teohuacans-hired as mercenaries because they were fierce warriors
Began to gain more and more power, started own civilization
Started building in the middle of Lake Texcoco, and started the capital Tenochtitlan
Became very powerful society because of military and geography
Hernando Cortes and his army of Spaniards defeated due to overwhelming numbers and advanced weaponry
Used cannons, which were unknown to the Aztecs; also blocked exits with horses, which were also unknown