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Transcript of Outcome-Based Education
"A Key Towards the Betterment of Philippine Education"
Proponent of OBE
William G. Spady:
A Paradigm Pioneer
Born: February 25, 1940
Self-proclaimed father of OBE.
Who is the proponent of OBE?
What is OBE?
What are outcomes?
What are the roles of teacher in OBE?
What are the outcomes of education?
What is relationship between program objectives and student learning outcomes on OBE?
What is active learning?
What are the outcomes-based assessment?
OBE can be seen from three views:
Theory in Education
System of Education
Classroom Practice-as planning, implementing and evaluating
Primary aim facilitate learning of learners, by increasing knowledge, developing skills, and/or positively influencing attitudes, values and judgment.
Teachers begins with the end in mind.
The four key questions:
a. What does the teacher want the students to learn?
b. Why does she/he want them to learn it?
c. How can she/he best help students learn it?
d. How will she/he know what they have learned?
(1996) suggests four points parallel to above four key questions. He believes these would help OBE work effectively:
What the students is to learn must be clearly identified.
The student's progress is based on demonstrated achievement.
Multiple instructional and assessment strategies need to to be available to meet the needs of each student.
Adequate time and assistance need to be provided so that each student can reach the maximum potential.
(OBE) is a process that involves the
restructuring of curriculum, assessment, and practices in education
to reflect the achievement of high order thinking skills and the mastery rather than the accumulation of course credits. (Tucker,2004)
The desired outcome selected first and the curriculum instructional
materials, and assessments are created to support the intended outcome. (Spady, 1998)
What are Outcomes
Clear learning results
When learners do important things with that they know
The Four Essential Principles of Outcome-Based Education
Principle of Clarity of Focus
Principle of Designing Back
Principle of High Expectations
Principle of Expanded Opportunities
Principle of Clarity of Focus
This principle implies that teacher, being the facilitators of learning, should establish at the beginning of a teaching process a very clear focus.
Principle of Designing Back
Related to the first principle, teachers have to establish the end results of learning at the start which students must achieve. This means that planning, teaching and assessment decisions should be linked to the outcomes to be achieved.
Principle of High Expectations
Helping students to achieve high standards is linked very closely to the idea that successful learning. When students experience success, their learning reinforced, their confidence is built and encouraged to accept further learning challenges.
Principle of Expanded Opportunities
The total development in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor levels is expected of all learners. But not all students can learn the same things in the same way and at the same time, however, given appropriate opportunities all can achieve high standards in outcomes that are important
A Framework for Outcome-Based Education
Institution's Vision, Mission, Goals
(Competence of Ideal Graduate)
clarifies key strengths and demonstrations of the system transformation face of OBE as follows:
future-focused and grounded
strong focus on meeting life challenges
strong connection among schools and their communities
encourages a global rethinking of appropriate instructional methods and demonstration contexts.
larity of foc
making a clear picture of desired outcome in the teaching-learning process.
Dimensions of opportunity
which involve duration of learning opportunity methods and modalities of instructions, performance standards, and access to essential learning experiences and resources.
The Meaning of the Four Principles for Spandy
He defines "
increasing level of challenge to which students are exposed and raising the standard of acceptable performance."
Design down principle
means curriculum and instructional planning begins where the teachers want students to "ultimately end up and build back from there" which Spady describes as a "powerful process."
The Roles of the Teacher on OBE
1. Teacher must create a positive learning environment
2. Teacher must help students understand what they have to learn
3. Teachers must use a variety of methods of instruction and combination of strategies is what is recommended.
4. Teachers must provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice using new knowledge and skills.
5. Teacher must help students to bring each learning episode to a personal closure
The National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) enumerated below should now part of every teacher educator's way of life.
Teaching-learning should be viewed by the students to be purposeful and challenging but not impossible.
Teaching will no longer defined as transmission of knowledge but a process of assisting students to understand information and transform these into their own knowledge.
The problem has been the lack of alignment between lesson objective and assessment. " Assessment does not match with your lesson objective" is a common comment written in observation notes of school heads after classroom observation.
Once learning outcomes or targets are identified, immediately the teacher identifies the proof/s that these targets have been realized and so gets a very clear idea on how she/he is going to assess.
Solution to the Problem
Passing licensure exam
Ability to communicate in writing, reading, speaking and mathematically
Skill in creative expression
Skill in technology utilization
Initial job placement
Admission in graduate program
The Outcomes of Education
Program Objectives (P.O.) and Student Learning Outcomes (S.L.O.)
Student Learning Outcomes
1. To provide instruction in order to enable students to understand the interrelationships among the social, cultural and biological bases of human behavior.
1.1 Students can describe critical cross-cultural differences in human behavior and explain their interplay among society, culture and biology.
1.2 Students can describe critical similarities in human behavior and explain their interplay among society, culture and biology.
2. To equip students knowledge of research methods appropriate to investigations in socio-cultural and anthropological setting.
2.1 Students can identify, define and give examples of various methods in anthropological research.
2.2 Students can explain and interpret research methodology in anthropological literature.
2.3 Students can submit a research proposal on an ethnic group in the community.
3. To encourage in students a deep understanding of and appreciation for cultural differences.
3.1 Students can demonstrate evidence of the unique social organization characteristics of the culture of 3 ethnic groups in the region.
3.2 Students can submit creative expressions, in visual arts or literature, of the cross-cultural differences of some ethnic groups.
Program Objectives are broad goals that the program expects to achieve which are stated from the point of view of the faculty or the program itself.
Objectives are express in three domains of learning. which are focused on the well-rounded and professional specific development of the students.
These are deferred outcomes of an educational program which are observable and verifiable, years after graduation.
Student learning outcomes are operational definitions of each of the program objectives. Since program educational objectives are broadly stated, they do not provide enough detail to be teachable and measurable fro assessment purposes.
Stated as active transitive verbs
These are the immediate outcomes of education
What is Active Learning
approach requires active student participation in classroom activities
strategy facilitate student engagement, enhance relevance, and improve motivation
The Students Engagement in Active Learning
Engages students as partners in the teaching-learning process
Helps them take more responsibility for their own learning.
Involves student engagement in activities, and critical analysis, and providing feedback about learning process to both teacher and students (McKeachie, 1987).
It also places greater emphasis on student exploration of attitudes, values, and habits, and can increase student motivation to learn and improve their abilities(Prince, 2004).
The Five Keys of a Learner-Centered Instructional Orientation:
1. Shifting and sharing power between the teacher and student;
2. Transitioning the teacher's role from an expert who lectures to a coach who facilitates;
3. Creating course environment that motivates students to accept more responsibility for their learning;
4. Aligning course content with learning strategy development; and
5. Involving students in the purpose and process of evaluation, which can include peer evaluations with feedback (Weimer, 1967)
Strategies for Active Learning in the Classroom
The following are some active learning strategies a teacher may consider in the implementation of OBE:
What is Outcome-Based Assessment (
Outcome-Based assessment is authentic assessment, a form of assessment in which students perform real-life tasks which are either replicas or simulations of the kind of situations faced by adult citizens or professionals.
The process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information about learners' achievement is employing different techniques, tools and methods, on an on going basis.
A comprehensive process of describing, judging and communicating the quality of learning and performances of students.
Features of an OBA
OBA emphasizes the assessment of student outputs or end products as opposed to lecture inputs.
A criterion-referenced assessment
Focuses on using frequent and varied assessment techniques to guide students towards achieving the outcomes set for a course.
Use of both formative and summative assessment
Includes integrated assessment to provide evidence that the purposes of course/module as a whole have been achieved.
Concerned with issues of reliability and fairness and assessment that are valid.
Killen (200) pointed out that to be useful in an OBE system, the assessment criteria to be utilized by teachers of academic institutions should conform to the following:
Procedures should be valid
Procedures should be realistic
Procedures should be fair
Assessment reflect the knowledge and skills
Assessment should tell educators and individual learners
Comprehensive and explicit
Support every learner's opportunity to learn things
Because learners are individuals, assessment should allow this individuality to be demonstrated.
Assessment Activities for Assessing Expected Learning Outcomes
Ill-Defined or Ill-Structured Problem
Journals or learning logs
Oral Presentations/ Oral Exam
Teacher Expectations in OBA:
focusing on the key elements of the curriculum that will lead to the desired outcomes
ensuring that every activity, inside and outside the classroom, help produced the desired results
providing opportunities for students to demonstrate proficiency in variety of modalities
reviewing and revising learning targets as revealed by assessment of results.
Students Expectations in OBE:
Understanding clearly what competencies/skills teachers expect to observe
Being ready to demonstrate what they know
Accepting responsibility for what they don't know yet
Being prepared to continue achieving and reaching high performance
-William G. Spady
Ms. Hanna Jenna Lim Dy
Cavite State University-Cavite City Campus
October 1, 2014
8 am-9 am