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Prehistory (The Stone Age)

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Tyler Stallons

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of Prehistory (The Stone Age)

Prehistory (The Stone Ages)
The Stone Ages are broken into 3 periods; Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.

Mesolithic
(Middle Stone Age)

Neolithic
(New Stone Age)

The Way out
Preview of early humans
Terms to know!
Fossils - are a part or imprint of something that was once alive.
Artifacts - are objects that are made by and used by humans.
History - is the study of the past.
Archeology - is the study of the past based on what people left behind.
Prehistory - period of time before there was writing.
Primary source - is an account of an event created by someone who took part in or witnessed the event.
Secondary source - is information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event.
Common Core Standards
S.S. 07-2.3.1 - Students will explain how conflict and competition occurred among individuals and groups in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
S.S. 07-3.1.1 - Students will explain how scarcity required individuals and groups in early civilizations to make decisions about how resources are used.
- The first part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age.
- The first tools used were made by stones.
- Scientists have found the oldest tools in Tanzania.
These Sharpened stones, about the size of an adult's fist, are about 2.6 million years old.
- Each stone had been struck with another rock to create a sharp and jagged edge along one side.
This process left one un-sharpened side that could be used as a handle.
- The first tools were mostly used to process food because the sharp edge could cut, chop roots, bones, or meat.
- Over time people learned to make better tools.
- For example they developed the hand ax. They made this tool out of a mineral called flint.
- Flint is easy to shape, and tools made from it can be very sharp.
- People used hand axes to break tree limbs, to dig, and to cut animal hides. Also people learned to attach wooden handles to the tools.
- They invented the spear because it could be thrown, hunters no longer had to stand close to animals they were hunting.
- They could now hunt larger animals like deer, horses, bison, and mammoths.
- Hunting became less dangerous
Thought Question:
If you were stranded in the Paleolithic Age (Early Stone Age), and you could only have one modern tool or weapon with you, what would you choose? Why?
Early Tools
Later Tools
Ice Man
- He lived about 5300 years ago and the was discovered in Italy in 1991.
- He was traveling before he died.
- After he died his body was covered by glaciers and preserved for thousands of years.
- He is important because he is the oldest mummified human ever found in such good condition.
- His body. clothing, and tools were extremely well preserved, telling us a lot about life during the Stone Ages.
- His outfit was made of out animal skin and he wore leather shoes padded with grass, a grass cape, a fur hat, and a sort of backpack. Also he carried an ax with a blade as well as a bow and arrows.
Stone Ax
Early Hand Tools
Look at the Ice Man! Gross, huh?
Society
- Lived in small groups
- During bad weather they would take shelter in caves.
- When food and water became scarce, what did they do?
- They were nomads
- They were known as hunter-gatherers
- They would hunt the animals and gather wild plants, seeds, and fruits to survive. This is the only way they were able to eat.
- What if you had to hunt and gather your own food? How would life be different for you?
- They hunted in groups for safety.
- They often chased herds of animals off of cliffs.

Hunter Gatherers
Language, Art, and Religion
- Language was most important development of early Stone Age Culture.
- Language made it easier for people to resolve issues
- Hunting
- Relationships
- Distributing food
- They also created art to express themselves.
- People carved figures out of stone, ivory, and bone.
- They painted and carved images of people and animals in cave walls.
- Scientist do not know much about the religion during this time, but do believe existed.
- Evidence comes from grave sites of people being buried with artifacts and food.
Cave Art
Common Core Standards
S.S. 07-3.4.2 Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increased human productivity in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
Thought Question
Would you want to live in the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) or today? Why?
Terms to know!
Migrate - moving to new places
Ice ages - long periods of freezing weather that ended about 10,000 years ago.
Land bridge - a strip of land connecting two continents.
Settling new lands
- Humans began to migrate from East Africa to southern Africa and to southwestern Asia around 100000 years ago.
- From there, people moved east into southern Asia.
- From southwestern Asia, humans also migrated north into Northern Asia and Europe.
- From Northern Asia, people moved into North America - Scientists disagree on when and how the first people arrived in North America.
- By 9000 B.C. humans lived on all continents of the world except Antarctica.
Clothing and Shelter
- To keep warm, they learned to sew animal skins together to make clothing.
- In addition to clothing, people needed shelter to survive in cold weather. So some took their shelter in caves.
- When people moved to area with no caves, they built their own shelters too.
- One early type of human made shelter was the pit house made out pits, branches, and leaves.
- People also built homes above the ground and some lived in tents made from animal skins.
- Others built more structures of wood, stone, clay, or other materials.
Adapting to new environments!
New shelters
New Tools and Technologies
- People adapted to new environments with new types of tools which were smaller and more complex than the tools from the Old Stone Age.
- During this time, people found new uses for bone and stone tools
- People who lived near water invented hooks and fishing spears.
- BIG DEAL!!!!!!! Why?
- Other groups invented the bow and arrow.
- BIG DEAL!!!!!!! Why?
In addition to new tools, people developed new technologies and ideas to improve their lives.
- Canoes out of hollowed out logs
- Began to make pottery
- Began to use dogs as pets and to help with hunting.
What up dog?
Mesolithic Tools
The Migration of Humans
Agriculture Revolution
Thought Question
If you lived during the Stone Age which new innovation/new idea/invention do you wish you would have come up with to make life easier during that time? Why? (It has to be relevant to the time period) (Nothing Modern)
Common Core Standards
S.S. 07-3.4.2 Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increased human productivity in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
Words to Know!
Domestication - the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful for humans.
Agriculture - domestication of plants. People could now produce their own food.
Megaliths - huge stones used as monuments. Used for religious gatherings.
Intro to Neolithic Era
- After the Middle Stone Age came a period of time that scientists call the Neolithic Era.
- New Stone Age.
- People learned to polish stones to make tools like saws and drills.
-They learned how to create fire. FINALLY!!!!

Plants and Animals
- Warmer weather brought an end to the ice ages.
- New plants began to grow in some areas.
- People came to depend on these wild plants for food and they began to settle where grains grew.
- People soon learned that they could plant seeds themselves to grow their own crops.
- They planted only the largest grains or the sweetest fruits.
- The process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans is called
domestication
.
-The domestication of plants led to the development of agriculture, or farming.
- The hunters didn't have to follow wild herds anymore.
- Farmers could keep sheep or goats for milk, food, and wool.
- They also could use large animals like cattle to carry loads or to pull large tools used in farming. (Its a whole NEW WORLD!!!!!)
Neolithic Revolution
- The Neolithic Revolution brought huge changes to people's lives.
- People could now focus on activities other than finding the foods.
- Domestication of plants and animals enabled people to use plant fibers to make cloth.
- Also people began to build permanent settlements.
- Once people were able to control their own food production, the world's population grew.
- As populations grew, groups of people gathered to perform religious ceremonies.
- Some put up megaliths. Megaliths are huge stones used as monuments.
- Early people believed in gods and goddesses. Some scholars prayed to their ancestors. People in some societies today still hold many of these same beliefs.
- As less time was spent on hunting and gathering more time was spent on enjoying life.
The neolithic tribe invented new technology that help us nowadays, without fire we would not be able to make many things that we do today.
FIRE!!!
Fire also helps out with other things we could not do in the past. For example, people use fire to cook food, to heat their houses in cold climates, to make more weapons for warfare, and to scare predators away.
Animal Domestication
Domesticating animals was one of the smartest innovations during the Neolithic Era. Animals helped out like a new pair of hands and decreased the workload for humans.
Look at the difference!
With all the new changes in life the Neolithic people had a lot more time on their hands. This would allow for more leisure activities. If you no longer had to hunt and gather as much, what would you do with your spare time?
A whole new world!
What words do you see?
A little fun!!!
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