Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Copy of General Anatomy

No description
by

Kizes Serafica

on 24 November 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of General Anatomy

General Anatomy
lacrimal nerve
supraorbital nerve
supratrochlear nerve
infratrochlear nerve
external nasal nerve
5 Branches of the ophthalmic nerve pass to the skin
supplies the skin on the posterior part of the side of the nose, the lower eyelid, the cheek, the upper lip, and the lateral side of the orbital opening.
Maxillary Nerve
infraorbital nerve
zygomaticofacial nerve
zygomaticotemporal nerve
3 Branches of the maxillary nerve pass to the skin
supplies the skin of the forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and the side of e nose down to and including the tip.
Ophthalmic Nerve
Mandibular Nerve
Two main vessels:

FACIAL ARTERY
SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY
Arterial Supply of the Face
(Mandibular nerve)
arises from the external carotid artery.
IT IS HERE THAT THE PULSE CAN BE EASILY FELT
Facial Artery
FACIAL VEIN
It runs from the medial angle of the eye, behind the lateral margin of the mouth, and crosses the mandible to drain into the internal jugular vein.
Venous Drainage of the Face
Lymph Drainage of the Face
Forehead and the anterior part of face Drainage:
SUBMANDIBULAR LYMPH NODES
Lateral part of the face, including the lateral parts of the eyelids Drainage:
PAROTID LYMPH NODES
Central part of the lower lip and the skin of the chin Drainage:
SUBMENTAL LYMPH NODES
DEEP FACIAL VEIN
It is joined to the pterygoid venous plexus.

TRANSVERSE FACIAL VEIN
Joins the superficial temporal vein within the parotid gland.
Tributaries
mental nerve
buccal nerve
auriculotemporal nerve
OPTHALMIC NERVE
MAXILLARY NERVE
MANDIBULAR NERVE
Sensory Nerves of Face

possesses numerous sweat and sebaceous glands.
NO DEEP FASCIA IS PRESENT IN THE FACE
`
FUNCTION:
serve as sphincters or dilators of the structures (orbit, nose, mouth - guarded by the eyelids, nostrils, and lips respectively)
SECONDARY FUNCTION
:
modify the expression of the face.

** all muscles are developed from the second pharyngeal arch and supplied by the facial nerve
Muscles of the Face
(Muscles of Facial Expression)
Sphincter muscle:
ORBICULARIS OCULI

Dilator muscles:
LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS & OCCIPITOFRONTALIS
Muscles of the Eyelids
Sphincter muscle:
ORBICULARIS ORIS

Dilator muscles:
SERIES OF SMALL MUSCLES THAT RADIATE OUT FROM THE LIPS
Muscles of the Lips and Cheeks
Sphincter muscle:
COMPRESSOR NARIS

Dilator muscle:
DILATOR NARIS
Muscles of the Nostrils
Skin of the Face
Sphincter Muscle of the Lips: Orbicularis Oris
Dilator muscle of the Lips
"FACE"
TEMPORAL BRANCH
emerges from the upper border of the gland and supplies the anterior and superior auricular muscles, the frontal belly of the occipitofrontalis, the orbicularis oculi, and the corrugator supercilii.
Facial Nerve
ZYGOMATIC BRANCH
emerges from the anterior border of the gland and supplies the orbicularis oculi.

BUCCAL BRANCH
emerges from the anterior border of the gland below the parotid duct and supplies the buccinator muscle and the muscles of the upper lip and nostril.
Skin of the face - supplied by the

three divisions of the trigeminal nerve
Small area over the angle of the mandible and the parotid gland - supplied by the

great auricular nerve

Buccinator Muscle
supplies the skin of the lower lip, the lower part of the face, the temporal region, anpart of the auricle.
Three branches of the Mandibular nerve pass to the skin
Superficial Artery
Branches of Facial Artery
submental artery
inferior labial artery
superior labial artery
lateral nasal artery
superficial temporal artery
transverse facial artery
supraorbital & supratrochlear arteries
C. MENTALIS MUSCLE


ORIGIN: mandible below the lower incisor teeth and beneath oral mucosa

INSERTION: skin of chin

ACTION: elevate chin. It also causes trembling of the chin. It wrinkles the skin of the chin as in disdain or doubt.

B. DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS or TRIANGULARIS
- gives the expression of sadness


ORIGIN: oblique line of mandible

INSERTION: angle of the mouth

ACTION: depress the angle of the mouth

A. DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORS
- a quadrilateral muscle; gives the expression of frowning


ORIGIN: base of the mandible, between mental protuberance and mental foramen

INSERTION: skin and mucosa of the lower lip

ACTION: draw the lower lip downward, as in ‘irony”

RISORIUS
-lies horizontally across the cheek. Gives the expression of irony or plasticity


ORIGIN: superficial fascia over the parotid

INSERTION: skin and mucosa of the angle of the mouth

ACTION: draw the angle of the mouth laterally, giving an expression of strain and stress

E. LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS OR CANINUS


ORIGIN: maxilla below the infraorbital foramen and the canine fossa of maxilla

INSERTION: fibers are directed downward, to be inserted to the angle of the mouth

ACTION: elevate angle of the mouth (also a muscle of happiness)

C. ZYGOMATICUS MINOR
- gives the expression of pain or sorrow

ORIGIN: zygomatic bone, medial to zygomatic major

INSERTION: skin on the nasolabial groove

ACTION: deepen the nasolabial groove as in sorrow

D. ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR
- Smiling muscle or muscle of happiness

ORIGIN: zygomatic bone and arch

INSERTION: angle of the mouth

ACTION: elevate or draw angle of the mouth up and back as in laughing or smiling

A. LEVATOR LABII SUPRIORIS ALAQUE NASI

ORIGIN: frontal nasal process

INSERTION: one slip goes to ala of the nose while the other goes to the orbicularis oris

ACTION: elevate the ala of the nose and the upper lip

B. LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS

ORIGIN: infraorbital head, zygomatic head and angular head

INSERTION: upper lip

ACTION: elevate lateral par of upper lip. Contraction of infraorbital head gives expression of sadness. Contraction of infraorbital head gives expression of disdain or doubt

C. MENTALIS MUSCLE


ORIGIN: mandible below the lower incisor teeth and beneath oral mucosa

INSERTION: skin of chin

ACTION: elevate chin. It also causes trembling of the chin. It wrinkles the skin of the chin as in disdain or doubt.

Muscle of the Cheek
Is the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch and supplies all the muscles of facial expression.
IT DOES NOT SUPPLY THE SKIN
Branches
MANDIBULAR BRANCH
Emerges from anterior border of the gland and supplies the muscles of the lower lip.

CERVICAL BRANCH
Emerges from the lower border of the gland and passes forward in the neck below the mandible to supply the platysma muscle; it may cross the lower margin of the body of the mandible to supply the depressor anguli oris muscle.


Clinical Correlation
Trigeminal Neuralgia is a relatively common condition in which the patient experiences excruciating pain in the distribution of the mandibular or maxillary division, with an ophthalmic division usually escaping.
Facial Infections and Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

The area of facial skin bounded by the nose, the eye, and the upper lip is a potentially dangerous zone to have n infection. Example, a boil in this region can cause thrombosis of the facial vein, with spread of organisms through the inferior ophthalmic veins to the cavernous sinus. The resulting cavernous sinus thrombosis may be fatal unless adequately treated with antibiotics.

Facial Muscle Paralysis

Bell’s palsy is a sudden loss of control of the muscles of facial expression on one side of the face. It is caused by lacerations of the face will cause distortion of the face, with drooping of the lower eyelid, and the angle of the mouth will sag on the affected side.

ORIGIN: outer surface of alveolar process of maxilla and mandible in the region of the molar teeth and pterygomandibular ligament

INSERTION: angle of the mouth blending with the orbicularis oris

ACTION: press the cheek against the teeth while chewing. Useful in mastication, whistling, sucking and blowing

BUCCINATOR MUSCLE

ORIGIN: outer surface of alveolar process of maxilla and mandible in the region of the molar teeth and pterygomandibular ligament

INSERTION: angle of the mouth blending with the orbicularis oris

ACTION: press the cheek against the teeth while chewing. Useful in mastication, whistling, sucking and blowing

BUCCINATOR MUSCLE
Full transcript