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Health and Safety

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Bob Rich

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Health and Safety

Health and Safety within Workplaces at Reading College
Presented by D Lynn, P Collins, A Sanders and R Richardson
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002
This course allows students to gain a broad understanding of plastering and start to practice a broad range of plastering skills that will equip you to start a career in the industry.

Students will learn how to prepare surfaces for plaster, carry out basic plastering and apply fibrous plaster (as an introduction to decorative plaster work).
Overview College General Safety Documents
Conduct in the workshop
Health and safety policy
QR codes
Safe system of work
COSSH assessment
Fire evacuation plan
Machinery data sheet
Accident book

Band saw
Pillar drill
Dimension saw
Bench circular saw
The course will initially broaden students' knowledge of bricklaying. This will enable the student to start practicing the required skills necessary. These include measuring, estimating, drawing out plans and laying bricks to enable the student in creating their own structure.

Students will learn through a combination of practical and theoretical work and you will be taught in our well-equipped construction workshop by fully qualified and experienced staff.
Bench circular saw
Safety audits
dimension saw
The departments we are investigating include;
Overview of all Health and Safety Regulations which apply
to all work areas.
Pillar saw
Working in our fully equipped plumbing workshops, students will learn basic plumbing skills for use around the home including joints, waste, taps and pipe bending.
students will also have the chance to work with machinery which is used out on site, such as a pipe threader. Students will also be taught how to use LPG safely and all the dangers which comes with using LPG.
Band Saw
Health and Safety At Work Act 1974
C.O.S.H.H. 2002
Manual Handling Operations 1992
R.I.D.D.O.R. 2013
P.P.E 2002
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
P.U.W.E.R. 1998
Working at Height 2005
Noise at Work 2005
Noise at work
Workshop code of practice
This states the guidelines and regulations that shall be followed by everyone when working in the workshop.
These code of practices are explained to the students and a copy is permanently on display in the workshop.
Carpenters build, install, and repair fixtures and structures made from wood. Most tasks involve the same fundamental steps such as working with instructions or blueprints and creating the layout of the projects. They measure, mark, and organize materials according to the required codes for building. They also cut and shape materials using a variety of different tools. They then join the materials and complete a final check to make sure the work is accurate and if necessary they make adjustments.
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

QR Codes
This states the guidelines and regulations that shall be followed by everyone when working in the workshop.
These code of practices are explained to the students and a copy is permanently on display in the workshop.
Machinery used within the bricklaying department included a forklift and a masonry saw.
This is the main Health and Safety regulation by which all other regulations abide to. It states that all workers have the right to work in a place where the risk to their health are properly controlled. It also requires all employees / students to take responsibility for their selves and others.

The college manage this by;
Carrying out risk assessments
Having a Health and safety policy in place
Following the approved code of practices
Supplying P.P.E. to staff and students
Carrying out safety audits
Training staff and students in correct use of equipment, tools and machinery.
On all the electric tools and machinery they have these labels. these show what competency you need before you can use it. It then shows you who is competent to use it. when using certain power tools and machinery you must wear specific PPE, on this label it shows what PPE that is. Finally it shows you the safety procedures on setting up, starting and stopping of that tool.
Machinery data sheet
Specific H&S Regulations for this work area include:
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER)
This regulation is relevant when the forklift is being used to transport materials around the workplace or lifting up to the 2nd level.
In the plumbing department many hazardous substances are used to join pipes and during fabrication activities, these substances include;
Solder (which contains lead)
Flux for soldering or joining pipes
Acetylene for welding/brazing
Liquified Propane Gas
Lubricating oil
Jointing Paste
Cutting compound
Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health regulations 2002
Under these regulations anyone at work needs to know what precautions to follow so that they do not put themselves or others a risk by means of exposure when using hazardous substances.

The college mange this by.
Carrying out C.O.S.H.H risk assessments
Have the M.S.D.S. safety sheets
Health and Safety policy
The health and safety policy states how the department is going to manage health and safety and their commitment to improving and reducing the incidents within the department.
The document also states the responsibilities for both staff and students with regards to their own and others health and safety.
A copy of the document is given to all members of staff when undertaking their health and safety induction, and A copy is permanently on display in each of the workshops.
Safe systems of work
The college use this document on all of there power tools and machinery. Its shows the students if they can use the tool or not. It also shows them if they can use the tool that they can only use it when they have had instructions on how to use it. This is used in all departments of construction.

All around the construction department you find this poster its shows you your current location, how its laid out and where your nearest fire exit would be from that point.
Fire evacuation plan
Accident book
In each section they have their own accident book. The accident book is a valuable document that the college can use to record accident information as part of their management of health and safety. Its used to record details of injuries from accidents at the college that must be reported under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).

Risk assessments have been carried out for all hazardous substances and these can be found in the class room and on moodle.
Gases are kept in a signed, outside caged storage area;
Good ventilation
Protection if a bottle was to ignite

Bottles checked for leakages before and after use but a leakage detector could be used in the storage area as an added safety precaution to alert the store's manager if a leakage occurs.
Storage of LPG & other compressed gasses
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 2002

Ensures any equipment or machinery is properly maintained and used for its intended purpose. Any machinery must have machine guards to protect the user from moving parts such as end mills, drill bits and rotating chucks.

The controls of the machinery must be in one place for easy access and have sufficient measures to enable the machine to be easily stopped in an emergency. Machines must also be isolated from the power source. Training must be provided for employees using the tools and the equipment.

Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
These regulations specify how the employer should deal with the risk to the safety of the employees when carrying out manual handling.

Assess the manual handling task to identify any risk that may be inherent in operation.
Avoid the need to carry out manual handling as far as possible.
Where a risk is identified, implement control measures to reduce that risk.

Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002
The regulation requires PPE to be supplied and used at work where there is a risk to workers health that can not be adequately controlled or removed. PPE is the last line of defense.

The equipment also needs to be well maintained, and replaced when necessary, as the equipment will have a finite life. In a carpentry workshop; overalls, safety boots and safety glasses are required for carpentry operations.
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
These regulations ensure all installations are safe and maintained correctly, conductors are insulated, circuit protection (such as earthing, fuses, RCDs and MCBs) is used, suitable joints are used and switches are located correctly.

The regulations also state that work should not be carried out on live conductors, unless it is unfeasible to cut power to the circuit, it is safe to do so or suitable protection is in place to ensure the user’s health is not put at risk.

Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER)
The fork lift will be classed as work equipment, thus will need to be tested and inspected under this regulation
These regulations ensure that companies and their employees that own, have control or operate lifting equipment have duties to adhere to.
These Regulations, often abbreviated to PUWER, place duties on people and companies who own, operate or have control over work equipment.
PUWER requires that equipment provided for use at work is:
Suitable for the intended use.
Safe for use, maintained in a safe condition and inspected to ensure it is correctly installed and does not subsequently deteriorate.
Used only by people who have received adequate information, instruction and training.
Accompanied by suitable health and safety measures, such as protective devices and controls. These will normally include emergency stop devices, adequate means of isolation from sources of energy, clearly visible markings and warning devices.
Used in accordance with specific requirements, for mobile work equipment and power presses.
Working at Height Regulations 2005
These regulations are there to reduce the amount of deaths and injuries from falls when working at height. Falls from height even low heights below 2m are one of the main cause of fatalities and injuries in the construction industry. The regulations also state that;

Working at height should be avoided if reasonably practicable to do the task another way.
Appropriate fall prevention equipment should be used.
The distance and possible consequence of the fall are minimize.
A risk assessment is carried out.
The job is properly planned and supervised
The task is carried out by competent person.

In the construction department they have two types internal safety these are; a two weekly inspection of the department and a yearly audit.
Codes of Practice
Weekly walk around.
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998.
At the college the technicians of each department do a weekly walk survey. In this survey the technicians go round that department and check to see if the general area is safe and that all safety systems which they have in place are still there such as machinery still having there guards in place
Whilst observing within the bricklaying
workshop we witnessed a few codes of practice that weren't being adhered to.
Firstly there is a mandatory sign that clearly states that when operatives are carrying out tasks above (plastering department), operatives within bricklaying shall wear hard-hats. This was not observed.
Noise at Work Regulations 2005
The aim of the Noise Regulations is to ensure that workers' hearing is protected from excessive noise at their place of work, which could cause them to lose their hearing and/or to suffer from tinnitus (permanent ringing in the ears).
When we visited the plastering department at Reading college it was noticed that bags of plaster were over-stacked on a pallet (see lifting diagram). The weight of these bags was not clearly indicated, but students should analyze the weight before attempting to lift them. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations state you must avoid any dangerous manual handling.

To avoid injury;

• Stack the pallet at a lower height

• Use lighter bags of plaster

• Use lifting aids where possible

Yearly safety audit
Each year the technicians and lecturers of all the construction departments get together and walk around each room and go through any health and safety issues which have occurred during that year. They would then go through any improvements which could help reduce the risk to students or to stuff from these issues
Another observation that we witnessed was that when the forklift was in operation around the workshop floor, neither the students or lecturers were wearing hi-visibility vests.
Just with these two observations we would suggest
that suitable practices were brought in where these safety requirements were being adhered to. This would include daily spot checks and the rules becoming mandatory within the workplace to wear hardhats and hi-visibility vest whilst in that particular area.
The college have safety audits in place but improvements could be made within the auditing process.
When looking at there weekly review form we found that the form is very generic and doesn't have anywhere to make comments on what they found and how they have resolved the problem or made others aware of the unsafe machinery or work area. a way to improve this would be to bring a form which has to be filled out by hand and has 2 stages, the first stage is to find all the hazards and the second stage showing how to reduce the risk from these hazards.
Weekly walk through survey
LOLER ensures all equipment is:
Fit for purpose
Appropriate for the task
Suitably marked
Subject to statutory periodic examinations
- records kept of inspections and defects

Working At Height Regulations 2005
The gate used for access to the plaster floor in the bricklaying building by forklift has the following issues;
It hinges down towards the first floor and does not have a mechanism to lift the gate back up to its original position
Does not cover the whole gap so items could dropped onto the floor below
The bricklayers are not wearing hard hats so if an item falls then they are at risk of injury
Improvements which need to be made to the plastering department
Machinery - Pipe Threading Machine
Report Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013
RIDDOR is in place in the machine shop to ensure all major injuries, work related diseases, and “near hit” incidents are recorded and reported.

This is to reduce the risk of the incident reoccurring in the future, i.e. if an injury is regular due to a process then the area should be investigated to see if it can be prevented, for example, by installing extra machine guards.
The role of the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspectorate
The HSE inspector performs an annual external audit on a company to analyse their health and safety policy to see whether they are complying to it. This includes identifying any health and safety issues and determining the efficiency of their current auditing process.

If any minor issues are identified, an improvement notice will be issued to the company detailing how it can be improved to ensure the safety of their employees/students and others.

If major health and safety problems are identified, the company or department in concern will be shut down until the problem has been solved.

Machinery - Mixer for plaster drill
Carpentry Improvements

One thing that was notice that we feel that the department my be able to improve on was, that when the students were carrying out manual tasks using hand tools such as hammers and wood chisel, that they were not wearing protective gloves or safety glasses.
When we spoke to the technician about their safety requirements when using hand tools he explained that glasses are not mandatory and that the gloves they have reduce dexterity when using the tools and this can create more of a hazard.
We feel that all the safety glasses are not mandatory for particular tasks there is sufficient risk to warrant wearing safety glasses or even safety goggles, and that a there maybe the need for an improved risk assessment or a task pacific risk assessment to be carried out to reduce or even a eliminate the risk.
With regards to the safety gloves there are a lot of new gloves on the market which offer increased protection with minimal reduction in dexterity, there are even fingerless cut resistant gloves which gives the wearer protection for most of their hand with no reduction in dexterity.
Whilst walking around the carpentry department it was noticed by all of the team that they had a very good understanding of health and safety regulations that govern them. With some very good control measures in place,
In particular the P.U.W.E.R and the Noise at Work regulations which covers the machine within the workshop.
They have good information signs on display by all the machines stating what P.P.E. should be worn and the operating procedures. They also give the students good training in the use of the machines and personal supervisor the students.
With regards to the Noise at Work Regulations they have isolated the machines that can not be reduce below 80 db, These are kept and used in a separate workshop that have warning signs stating that you must wear ear protection at all times.
Improvements to plumbing
When looking for information on the machinery in the plumbing department you can usually find all the information on the colleges moodle account this wasn't the case for the plumbing department. if the plumbing department updated there moodle account they would be able to bring in the QR system which the carpentry department use.
QR codes
in the carpentry department the college have used the QR code system to make it easy to get the information on different machinery and COSSH items. this is a very good system to have in place as smart phones are so common with students. The system itself doesn't need improving but its only used in the carpentry department if its going to be used it needs to be used in the whole of construction
Audit system
The college audit every week and once a year. if we were to improve there system we would bring in more comprehensive audits every 3 months. With doing this the more serious problems the construction department has such as the gate in the plastering will be brought up more as it seems a common issue which still hasn't be sorted.
This is the audit system we would bring in
At the beginning of each week the technicians and the students should do a safety audit and risk assessment on the task at hand this would make it a lot specific and not generic
Every three months the lecturers and technicians should get together and go through all the safety issues which have occurred in the lat three months
At the end of every year all the lecturers and technicians would get together to discuss the last 3 months safety issues and to go over all the issues from the year and see if they have been resolved and if not why not.

The diagram below show the safe lifting zones when manual handling, however the individual should assess the load to see if they are capable of lifting it - these zones are only a guide, different people will have different builds and capabilities so lifting a specific weight should not be required of a employee or user.
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