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World War II
Transcript of World War II
1938: Germany annexes (takes over) Austria to unify German speaking people
Another Treaty violation --> No Response from L of N
Appeasement: giving someone what they want to avoid conflict
Munich Conference (1938): BR and FR give Hitler Sudetenland (part of Czech.), he promises no more invasions
Isolationism and Neutrality
World War II
The War in Europe
Blitzkrieg ("lightning war")- German surprise attacks using planes and tanks, followed by infantry invasion
Germany takes over most of Europe
The War Expands
1939: Hitler and Stalin non-aggression pact (SU won't declare war, Hitler will give Stalin part of Poland)
1940: Hitler launches surprise attack on SU, tanks freeze, invasion fails
1942: Hitler loses at Stalingrad, major turning point in the War
Japan needed oil →and to expand their empire in the Pacific
Best strategy--> surprise attack on US fleet
December 7, 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor --> US declares war
US Joins the War
Allied Powers: BR, US, SU
Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy
War in the Pacific
Hideki Tojo: Prime Minister of Japan during WWII
His plan: Short war, negotiate treaty with US for control over East Asia
US Strategy: free islands one at a time "island hopping"
Battle of Midway (1942): turning point, US cripples Japan's fleet
June 6, 1944: Normandy Landing (D-Day)
Goal: liberate France from Nazis
Amphibious attack: water + land
Results: heavy casualties (3,000 dead), turns tide in favor of Allies
Hitler's "Final Solution": kill all Jews in Europe to create master race
Jews (+ disabled, gays, etc.) were sent to concentration camps like Auschwitz and killed
2/3 of Jews in Europe died (about 6 million)
Ending the War
V-J Day- Sept. 2, 1945
War in Europe Ends
1945: Hitler commits suicide, War in Europe ends (V-E day)
Nuremberg trials: Nazi leaders tried for "crimes against humanity"
Albert Einstein: German Jewish scientist (refugee in US) warns that Nazis may use atomic bomb against US
Manhattan Project: US developed 2 atomic bombs to use against Japan to end war sooner
Build Up to War
1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
1936: Germany places troops near France (violation of Treaty)
1937: Japan brutally invades China again
League of Nations is too weak to respond to any of these events
Response to Hitler
"Do you agree with the reunification of Austria with the German Reich that was enacted on 13 March 1938, and do you vote for the party of our leader Adolf Hitler?"
How would you vote?
Propaganda inside the voting booth
(Sudetenland is free!)
March 1939: Hitler violates Munich pact; invades Czech.
September 1939: Hitler invades Poland --> BR and FR declare war
1940: Nazis take control of France
British left all alone to fight in Europe
Winston Churchill inspired Britain with radio addresses
The War in Europe
End of the War
Elie Wiesel, author of Night