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MY JOURNEY THROUGH THE UNIVERSE

This Prezi is a guide for beginners who want to explore the Mystical Universe. Hope you benefit and enjoyed!
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Rithvik Kalluri

on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of MY JOURNEY THROUGH THE UNIVERSE

MY JOURNEY THROUGH THE UNIVERSE
THE MYSTERY BEING
We humans exist for a short, but during that period we explore a small part of the universe. We humans are the most curius species known to mankind, we wonder, we seek answers. Living in the world, where we express and experienced various emotions good and bad. People have asked various questions: how does the universe behave? Where did all these come from, did the universe need a creator?. Most of us do not spend time in wondering about theses questions but most of us worry or brainstorm about these question at one point of time.
IS SINGULARITY SINGLE?
BIG BANG BOES BANG
What is big bang theory? This question must be plundering in your mind now. In short one of the most important theory in the field of astronomy.

The theory basically suggests is that all of the current and the past matter in the universe came to existence. This important event occurred 13.7 billion years ago all matter and energy was compacted into a really small ball called singularity, which had an density that has no end and temperature that can not be counted. Suddenly, that singularity began to expand and the universe came into being.


According to m-theory (a group of astronomical theories), it is believed to be core of all the super massive black holes and common in most of the miniature black holes. The pressure is theorized to be so intense that finite matter is actually compressed until it has infinite density. This area of infinite density is called a singularity. Our universe is thought to have begun as one of these infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense singularities.
HAVE YOU BENDED SPACE AND TIME?
While the idea of space-time is closely linked with Albert Einstein's 1905 theory of special relativity, mathematician Hermann Minkowski actually coined the term three years later in 1908 in response to Einstein's theory. Time is a measurement of change that occurs in space. The word "space-time" is our merging of the two concepts into a single continuum ( A continues event):three spatial dimensions plus a fourth dimension of time. Einstein realized that space an time are relative-- an object in motion actually experiences time at slower rate than an object in rest. Compared to the mighty speed of light, we travel at really slow speed, we never notice the watches on our hand ticks slower when we are in motion; running or traveling on an airplane. Recently scientists have actually proved this fact by sending atomic clocks up with really fast rocket. They returned to earth Earth slightly behind the clocks on the ground. The closer an object in motion reaches the speed of light, that object would experience time at a much slower rate
If the Rocket was traveling safely at close to the speed of light to the center of our galaxy from Earth, it would take 25,000 years of Earth time. For the crew, however, the trip would probably only take 10 years. Unfortunately Einstein boldly states that no matter is possible to out run the speed of light.
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HOW TO BEND SPACE TIME 2
Einstein's later theory, the General Theory of Relativity, which describes how gravity affects the shape of space and flow of time. Imagine a stretched-out sheet. If you place a bowling ball in the middle of the sheet, the sheet will warp as the weight of the ball pushes down on it. If you place a baseball on the same sheet, it will roll towards the bowling ball. This is a simple design, and space doesn't act like a two-dimension bed sheet, but it can be applied to something like our solar system -- more massive objects like our sun can warp space and affect the orbits of the surrounding planets. The planets don't fall into the sun, of course, because of the high speeds at which they travel.
Einstein said it the best," space-time is a never ending fabric.
VIDEO ON SPACE TIME
PARTS OF THE SOLAR SYTEM
Our solar system has divided 6 parts, each with its own purpose and identity.
SUN
TERRESTRIAL PLANETS
ASTEROID BELT
JOVIAN PLANETS
KUIPER BELT
OORT CLOUD
SUN
Sun is in the center of our solar system, our sun is a middle aged star , which is ≈ 4.6 billion years old! This astounding sun takes 99.8% of the solar system. An other flabbergasting fact that surface temperature is ≈ 6000°C. Our sun is full with love. As stars are very similar to lamps. All lamps need full to be burn, so do stars.As described by Empedocles, love is fusion and strife is fission. At the core of the sun there happens to be a helium and hydrogen atoms fusion to keep the sun extremely hot. An educated guess says that the sun will shine for ≈12 billion years.
TERRESTRIAL PLANETS
Terrestrial planets are commonly known as "Earth like planets", they are made up of rocks or metals with a solid surface, which makes them differ from the "Jovian" planets, who lack a solid surface. Terrestrial planets also have a molten heavy metal core, few moons, and a variety of topological features like valleys, volcanoes and craters. In our solar system, there are four terrestrial planets, which also happen to be the four closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus Earth and Mars.
ASTEROID BELT
Scattered ≈2-4 AU away from the sun lies the asteroid belt which interestingly orbits the sun. These bits and pieces of rock are the remains from the dawn of the solar system. Most of these objects, called asteroids — meaning "star-like" — orbit between Mars and Jupiter in a grouping known as the Main Asteroid Belt.

The Main Asteroid Belt lies more than two-and-a-half times as far as Earth does from the sun. It contains billions — maybe even trillions — of asteroids. Most of these are relatively small, from the size of boulders to a few thousand feet in diameter. But some are significantly larger.
JOVIAN PLANETS
Commonly referred as the Gas Giants. There are 4 Jovian planets: Jupiter, Neptune, Uranus, Neptune, they 4 are also the outer planets. Therm Jovian cam from the planet Jupiter. They terrestrial and Jovian planets have 1 thing in common both have a rocky core. These planets are surrounded by number of moons and rings. Their rotation are faster than the terrestrial planets. Jovian planets have a dense core surrounded by a huge layer of gas which is made up of hydrogen and helium.
Kuiper Belt
Beyond the gas giant Neptune, lies the coldest place in our solar system which is filled with icy bodies, known as the kuiper belt. This freezing belt holds trillions of objects, the remains of the early solar system. Dutch astronomer Jan Oort first proposed an idea saying that the commets come from the far end of our solar system. Earlier, in 1943, astronomer Kenneth Edgeworth had suggests that comets and larger bodies exists beyond Neptune. In 1951, astronomer Gerard Kuiper predicted the existence of a belt of icy objects that now bears his name.
OORT CLOUD
A giant shell of icy bodies lay on the circumference of the solar system. Most of the comets come from the Oort Cloud can travel ≈ 3 light years. They farther they go from the sun, the sun's gravitational force on the object grows weaker. As comets pass through various obstacles such as passing stars, clouds, dust, its most likely to change its motion.

STARS THE HEATMIGHTY!
A Star is formed when a large amount of gas, mostly hydrogen, starts to collase in on itself due its gravitational attraction. As it contracts, the atoms gas collide with each other more and more frequently and at greater and greater speeds-the gas heats up. Eventually the gas will be so hot that when the hydrogen atoms collide they no longer bounce off each other but instead merge with each other to form helium atoms. The heat released in this reaction, which is liked a controlled hydrogen bomb, is what the stars shine. this additional heat also increases the pressure of the gas until it is sufficient to balance the gravitational attraction, and the gas stops contracting. It is a bit like a balloon where there is a balance between the pressure of the air inside, which is trying to make the balloon expand, and the tension in the rubber, which is trying to make the balloon smaller. CONTINUATION NEXT ZOOM
STARS THE HEATMIGHTY! 2
The stars will remain stable like this for a long time, with the heat from the nuclear reactions balancing the gravitational attraction. Eventually, however, the star will run out its hydrogen and other nuclear fuels. And paradoxically, the more fuel a star starts off with, the sooner it runs out. This is because the more massive the star is , the hotter it needs to be to balance its gravitational attraction. And the hotter it is, the faster it will use up its fuel. Our sun has probably got enough fuel for another five thousand million years or so, but more massive stars can use up their fuel in as little as one hundred million years, much less than the age of the universe. When the stars runs out of the fuel, it will start to cool off and so to contract. What might happen to it then was only first understood at end of the 1920s.
DICTATOR BLACK HOLE
When the star has shrunk to a certain critical radius, the gravitational field at the surface becomes so strong that the light, can no longer escape. According to the theory of relativity, nothing can travel faster than light. Thus, if light can not escape, neither can anything else. Everything is dragged back by the gravitational field. So one has a set of events, a region of space-time, from which it is not possible to escape to reach a distant observer. This region is what we know call a black hole. Its boundary is called the event horizon. It coincides with the paths of the light rays that just fail to escape from the black hole.
BLACK HOLES AIN'T SO BLACK
The work that Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking did between 1965 and 1970 showed that, according to general theory of relativity, there must be a singularity of infinite density within the black hole. This is rather like the big bang at the beginning of time, only it would be an endmof time for the collapsing body and the astronaut. At the singularity, the laws of science and our ability to predict the future would break down. However, any observer who remained outside the black hole would not be affected by this failure of predictability, because neither light nor any other signal can reach them from the singularity.
This remarkable fact led Roger to propse the cosmic censorship hypothesis, wich might be paraphrased as "God abhors a n-singularity". In other words, the singularities produced by gravitational collapse occur only in places like black holes, where they are decently hidden from outside view by an event horizon. Strictly, this is what is known as the weak cosmic censorshp hypothesis:protect observers who remain outside the
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BALCK HOLE AIN'T SO BLACK 2
black hole from the consequences of the breakdown of predictability that occurs at the singularity. But it does nothing all for the poor astronaut who falls into a black hole.
There are some solutions of the equations of general relativity in which it is possible for our astronaut to see n-singularity . He may able to avoid hitting the singularity and instead fall through a "wormhole" and come out in another region of the universe. This would offer great possibilities for travel in space and time, but unforunatly it seems that the solutions may all be highly unstable. The least disturbance, such as the presence of an astronaut, may change them so that the astronaut can not see the singularity until he hits and his time comes to an end. In other words, the singularity always lies in his future and never in his past.
The strong version of the cosmic censorship hypothesis states that in a realistic solution, the singularities always lie either entirely in the future, like the singularities of
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BLACK AIN'T SO BLACK 3
of gravitational collapse, or entirely in the past, like the big bang. It is greatly to be hoped that some version of the censorship hypothesis holds, because close to n-singularities it may be possible to travel into the past. While this would be fine for writers of science fiction, it would mean that no one's life would ever be safe. Someone might go into the past and kill your father or mother before you were conceived.
In a gravitational collapse to form a black hole, the movements would be dammed by the emission of gravitational waves. One would therefore expect that it would not be too long therefore expect that it would be too long before the black hole would settle down to a stationary state. It was generally supposed that this final stationary state would depend on the details of the body that has collapsed to form the black hole. The black hole might have any shape or size, and its shape might not even be fixed, but instead pulstating.
SCIENCE HAS REVALUATION WHAT ABOUT A EVALUATION?
JOURNEY THROUGH THE BLACK HOLE
THROUGH STEPHEN HAWKING'S BLACK HOLE
The scientific which in brief is a emergence of modernized science during the early period, this period saw growth in maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and most notably Astronomy, which transformed our views on nature. According many historians believe the scientific revaluation began in Europe, end of the Renaissance era and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.
ARISTOTLE
As long ago as 340 B.C. Aristotle, in his book on the book ''
On The Heavens
', was able to put forward 2 good arguments for believing that the earth was a round ball rather than a flat plate. First, he realized that eclipses of the moon caused by the earth coming between the sun and moon. The earths shadow on the moon was always round, which would true only if earth was spherical. If the
Earth had been elongated and elliptical, unless the eclipse always occurred at a time when the sun was directly above the center of the disk.

SIR ISAAC NEWTON
Notably Newton was the most influential figures in the field of astronomy., even though he lived in the 1600s his work still affects till today. Newton discovered many laws and theories, that not only enlightened our minds but also gave future scientists and idea on how to enter space. His famous discovery was the 3 laws of motion and the law of gravity. By connecting his work on planetary motion and Johannes Kepler he established the classic mechanics of physics. He proved the heliocentric model first propsed by Copernicus. He also was the first to propose a set of laws that described the motion of all things in the universe. . What did Newton discover? He opened humanity’s eyes to new possibilities and even though his work is over three hundred years old it still helps to guide the advance of technology and our scientific understanding of the earth and the universe around us.
EDWIN POWELL HUBBLE
Often lauded as the father of modern cosmology, Edwin Powell Hubble made several significant discoveries that changed how scientists viewed the universe. In the 1920s, the small, diffuse patches in the sky were termed nebulae, and were thought to exist within the Milky Way. Hubble noticed a pulsating star known as a Cepheid . Hubble calculated how far away each Cepheid lay — and thus how far to each nebula — and realized they were too distant to be inside of the Milky Way. Astronomers realized the significance of Hubble's work, that these nebulae are were astoundingly different galaxies containing billion stars. This discovery opened the eyes of many astronomers, who believed that our universe is restricted to milky way. After few observations Hubble determined that galaxies did not sit at rest, but running away from earth. Astronomers rushed to test his calculations on other galaxies, and found that some were moving as quickly as 90 million mph (40,000 kilometers per second) in the opposite direction. The calculation wich determines how fast they are rushing is known as Hubble's law, According to the calculation, the universe is expanding at a constant rate, known as the Hubble constant.
ALBERT EINSTEIN
Albert Einstein is the most celebrated Scientists in History. His work not only for being a source of knowledge but also to bring the the new age discovery to the the field of Astronomy. What me mostly think about Einstein is E=mc2, but his contributions are way more than that. If he was not there are world of astronomy would be much behind than what we are now. His first discovery is related to brownian motion, brownian motion is the behavior of atoms in a fluid. Einstein created the quantum theory of light, the idea that light exists as tiny packets, or particles, which he called photons. Alongside Max Plank's work on quanta of heat Einstein proposed one of the most shocking idea in twentieth century physics: we live in a quantum universe, one built out of tiny, discrete chunks of energy and matter.
His 2nd famous book "the theory of special relativity" is mainly based on how light effects space-time. As I mentioned before on how space-time works. Humans and clock tick slower when we are in motion rather than an object which is in rest. The ore near we get to the speed of light the slower the Clock will tick and the slower you will fell the Time. Albert Einstein, in his theory of special relativity, determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers, and he showed that the speed of light within a vacuum is the same no matter the speed at which an observer travels. As a result, he found that space and time were interwoven into a single continuum known as space-time.
Einstein also proved the changes in mercury orbit, with not enough space-time bended by mercury which is causing change in its orbit. In a billion years it may collide with Earth.
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Albert Einstein 2
In his 1st famous the theory of general theory of relativity. Einstein Focuses on how big object can curve in space-time. While the The theory of Special Relativity focuses on light, The theory of general relativity focuses on Newton's question on gravity explaining where does gravity come from, how does it work?, Einstein introduced the concept space-time in the theory of special relativity, in this he makes the concept broader, on how planets and objects curve space time. He also says how light is not only waves but also made up of particles.
CREDITS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
MAJOR SOURCES:
THE GRAND DESIGN BY STEPHEN HAWKING
THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING BY STEPHEN HAWKING

MINOR SOURCES:
SPACE.COM
UNIVERSETODAY.COM
STEPHEN HAWKING
One of the most controversial scientists, in the history of astronomy but also regarded as the most brilliant mind after einstein. His work mainly concentrates on the formation and the origin of the universe from the big bang to black holes. Over the course of his career, Hawking studied the basic laws governing the universe. He proposed that, since the universe boasts a beginning – the Big Bang – it will likely have an ending. Working with fellow cosmologist Roger Penrose, he demonstrated that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity suggested that space and time began at the birth of the universe, and ends within black holes, a result that implied that Einstein's theory of General Relativity and quantum theory must be united.

Using the two theories together, Hawking also determined that black holes are not totally silent but instead emit radiation. He predicted that, following the Big Bang, black holes the size of protons were created, governed by both general relativity and quantum mechanics. [PHOTOS: Black Holes of the Universe]

Hawking proposed that the universe itself has no boundary, much like the Earth. Although it is finite, one can travel around the planet (and through the universe) infinitely, never encountering a wall that would be described as the "end."
QUESTIONING THE UNIVERSE
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