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Transcript of Marking Punctuation
-To end a Sentence - Please remember extra batteries.
-After an Initial - Octavia E. Butler
-As a Decimal - Ice-cream cones now cost $1.20.
-After Abbreviations - Mr. Mrs. Jr. Dr. U.S.A Marking
Punctuation Direct Question
Will computers help make cars safer? Indirect Question
I asked if cars will change a lot. Tag Question
People will miss the sound of coins, don't you think? Excellent!
Wow! That's great!
That new program is awesome! I can't wait to surf the internet!!!
I can't wait to surf the internet! The Comma Comma keep words and ideas
from running together.
They make writing easier to read. Items in a Series
Commas are used between words or phrases in a series.
Example: In the future, robots will cook, clean, and iron. ( words in a series)
Robots will take out the trash, return phone calls, and open the front door. To keep numbers clear
Commas are used in numbers of
four digits or more to keep
the numbers clear.
Example: More then 700,000 immigrants come into the United States each year. When a number refers to a year, street address, or a ZIP code, no comma is used. Also write numbers in the millions and billion this way: 7.5 million, 16 billion.
Example: Brazil, country of 160 million people , is the largest country in South America. In Dates and Addresses
Commas are used to set off the different parts in addresses and dates.
My family’s address is 2463 Bell Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64111. IMPORTANT:
Do not use a comma to separate the state from the ZIP code.
Do not use a comma if only the month and year are written ( January 2010)
I will be 27 years old on January 2, 2010. To set off dialogue
Use a comma to set off the words of the speaker from the rest of the sentence.
Example: Writer G.G Márquez said, «the most important thing I learned to do after 40 years was to say no when it is not». To set off dialogue
If you are telling what someone has said but are not using the person’s exact words, do not use commas or quotation marks.
Writer G.G Marquez said that the most important thing I learned to do after 40 years was to say not when it is not. To set off interruption:
Commas are used to set off a word or that interrupts the main thought of a sentence.
( Interrupt means «to break into» or «to stop».)
Computers can , for example, teach people how to play video games or drive a car. WORDS
List of words and phrases
you can use to interrupt main
To be sure
As a matter of fact
Example: the life is beautiful, however, it is difficult. To set off Interjections
A comma may be used t separate an interjection from the rest of the sentence.
An interjection is a word or phrase showing surprise.
Examples: No kidding, you mean computers may be worn like a wristwatch someday?
Oh my, I see everything in 3-D! To set off interjections
If an interjection shows very strong, feeling, an exclamation point (!) may be used to separate it from the rest of a sentence.
Wow In direct Address
Comma are used separate a noun of direct address from the rest of the sentence. ( A noun of direct address names the person being spoken to.)
Examples: Yuri, computers in the future will not need keyboards.
I know that, Maria. Computers will work with voice commands. To set off Titles or initials
Commas are used to set off titles or initials that follow a person’s last name.
Example: Mary Royal, M.D., and Charles K. Robinson, Ph.D., are learning Spanish.
(Titles following names)
But Kwon, B.J., and Rodriguez, T.C., are learning French. (initial following names)
If an initial comes at the end of a statement, use only one period. In Compound Sentences
A comma may be used before the connecting word in a compound sentence.
A compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses connected by words like and, but, so, nor, and yet.
Example: Computer technology will help you learn other languages, and it will translate information for you as well. IMPORTANT
An independent clause expresses a complete though and can stand alone as a simple sentence. To separed Introductory Phrases and Clauses
A comma should be used to separate a longer phrase or a clause that comes BEFORE the main part of the sentence.
Example: For the first time in recorded history, hunger could be ended everywhere on earth.
If governments would work together food could be distributed to everyone suffering from hunger NOT NEED COMMA
You usually do not need a comma when the phrase or the clause comes AFTER the main part of the sentence.
Example: Hunger could be ended everywhere on earth for the first time in recorded history.
You usually do not need a comma after a brief opening phrase:
In time soybeans and sea vegetables will be used to feed the world. To Separate Adjectives
Commas are used to separate two or more adjectives that modify a noun in an equal way.
Example: There are plenty of nutritious, edible plants in the world.
We may eat many unusual plants in the years to come. Remember
Do not use a comma to set off the last adjective from the noun.
Example: Will these unusual plants help solve the terrible, tragic problem of world hunger? To set off explanatory Phrases
Commas are used to set off an explanatory phrase from the rest of the sentence.
Example: Sonja, back from a visit to Florida, told us about new sources of energy.
Our class, eager to hear her report, listened very carefully.
Sonja’s information, almost all about solar power, was very interesting. Examples Appositive Phrases
-Reggie White, a star football player,…
-Henry, our new calico cat,…
-Winter, our longest season,…
-Blue jeans, my favorite clothing,… To separate nonrestrictive Phrases and Clauses
Commas are used to set off nonrestrictive phrases and clauses from the rest of the sentence.
Example: Our usable water supply, which comes from surface water or groundwater, makes up only one percent of the total water available on earth. Nonrestrictive
No commas are needed before or after a restrictive phrase or clause.
Example: Groundwater that is free from harmful chemicals is hard to find. HYPEN A hyphen is used to divide a word at the end of a line. It is also used to form compound words and to write fractions. In addition, a hyphen is used to join the words in compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine, to join letters and words, and so on. •Never divide a one-syllable word: would, large, etc.
•Try not to divide a word of five or fewer letters: older, habit, etc.
•Never divide a one-letter syllable from the rest of the word: apart-ment not a-partment.
•Never divide abbreviations or contractions: Mrs., Dr., don’t, haven’t, etc. A hyphen is used between the numbers in a fraction that is written as a word. A hyphen is often used to join a letter to a word. T-shirt X-ray
E-mail U-turn A hyphen is used to form new words beginning with the prefixes all, self, ex, great, etc. A hyphen is also used whit suffixes such as elect and free.
-To join two independent clauses .
Some cities may rest on the ocean floor; other cities may float like islands.
-With Conjunctive Adverbs
Living in a floating city sounds interesting; however, living in a city on the ocean floor sounds impossible.
-To separate groups of words that contain commas
People in the future may live in spacious, confortable domes; in orbiting space stations; or in underground tunnel cities. COLON
-To Introduce a Quotation
President Lincoln made this announcement in his Emancipation Proclamation : "On the 1 st day of January, A.D. 1863, all persons held as slaves . . . shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free." -To introduce a list
The following materials can be used to build houses: plants, shells, sod, and sand. In a business Letter
Dear Ms. Kununga: Dear Sir: -Between Numbers in time
7:30 a.m. 10:00 p.m. 12:00 noon DASH
A dash is used to show a break in a sentence or to emphasize a word or a group of words.
A dash can show a sudden break in a sentence.
Because of computers, our world-and the way we describe it- has changed greatly.
A dash may be used to emphasize a word, a series of words, a phrase, or a clause
You can learn about many subjects-customs, careers, sports, weather-on the Internet. QUOTATION MARKS
Quotation marks are used for each of the following reasons:
To set off the exact words of a speaker from the rest of the sentence.
To show the exact words a writer has quoted from book or magazine.
To set off certain titles.
To note words used in a special way. Quotation marks are used to set off a speaker’s words in dialogue:
Martha asked, “Who can show me how to find information about Mexico? ” Quotation marks are placed before and after the exact words you quote from magazines and books.
'' Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck.'' Dalai Lama Quotation marks are used to punctuate titles of songs, poems, short stories, book chapters and articles in encyclopedias, newspapers, or magazines.
. “Take Me Out to the Ballgame” (song) . “Casey at the Bat” (poem) . “A Game to Remember” (short story) . “Throwing a Curveball” (chapter in a book) . “Winning Isn’t Everything (newspaper article).
When you punctuate a title, capitalize the first word, the last word, and every word in between except for articles (a, an, the), short prepositions (of, for, with, etc), and coordinate conjunctions (and, or, but, etc). Placed an exclamation point or a question mark inside the quotation marks when it punctuates the quotation.
Alfredo asked, “Does anyone want to go for a balloon ride?” (Inside)
Place an exclamation point or a question mark outside the quotation marks when it punctuates the main sentence.
Did Alfredo really say, “Balloon rides are better than airplane rides”? (Outside) Use quotation marks around words used in a special way:
I like to “chill out” with my friends. APOSTROPHE
An apostrophe is used to form contractions, to form plurals, or to show possession. (Possession means “owing something”) An apostrophe is used in a contraction to show that one or more letters have been left out.
I’m (I am) you’d (you would)
Couldn’t (could not) haven’t (have not) it’s (it is) didn’t (did not) he’s (he is) they`re (they are) don’t (do not) I’ve (I have) won’t (will not) doesn’t (does not) I’ll (I will) wouldn’t (would not) hasn’t (has not) isn’t (is not) you’d (you would) An apostrophe and S are used to form the plural of a letter or a numeral.
A’s B’s 3’s 10’s Form the possessive of most singular nouns by adding an apostrophe and S.
Maria’s report is on global warming. It is one of the world’s most serious problems. Mr. Marcia’s opinion is different.
When a singular noun ends whit an S or a Z sound, the possessive may be formed by adding just an apostrophe:
Carlos’ weather chart is very detailed.
But when the singular noun is a one-syllable word, form the possessive by adding both an apostrophe and S:
Chris’s lab report is incomplete. TO FORM PLURAL POSSESSIVES
In most cases, form the possessive of plural nouns ending in S by adding just an apostrophe.
The visitors’ ideas were helpful. The lawmakers’ debate dealt with immigration. The immigrants’ first view of the U.S was the Statue of Liberty.
For plural nouns not ending in S, an apostrophe and S must be added:
Women’s health is often discussed. The children’s team practices today.
Add an apostrophe and S to the last noun when possession is shared.
Sasha and Olga’s new science project deals with electricity. ITALICS & UNDERLINE
Italics is a style of type that is slightly slanted. In this sentence the word girl is printed in italics. In hand written or typed material, each word or letter that should be in italics underlined.
In Zlata’s Diary a young girl describes her daily life in Bosnia. (Printed)
In Zlata’s Diary a young girl describes her daily life in Bosnia. (Handwritten or typed) IN TITLES
Underline (or use italics for) the titles of books, plays, very long poems, magazines, movies, record albums, cassettes, CD’s, the names of ships and aircraft, and newspapers.
The Giver (book) National Geographic (magazine) Babe (movie) Save the World (Album) Underline (or use italics for) non-English words that are not commonly used in everyday English. Also underline scientific names.
Semper fidelis means “always faithful.” It is the motto of the U.S. Marine Corps. PARENTHESES
Parentheses are used around words that add extra information to a sentence.
You’ll pay more for a portable computer (usually called a notebook) than you will for a desktop model. Thanks! To divide a word:
A hyphen is used to divide a word when you run out of room at the end of a line. A word may be divided only between syllables (ex-plor-er). Here are some additional guidelines. One-half (1/2) five-tenths (5/10) A hyphen is used between the numbers in a fraction that is written as a word.
One-half (1/2) five-tenths (5/10)