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Copy of The Philippine Press During the Japanese Interregnum
Transcript of Copy of The Philippine Press During the Japanese Interregnum
The Philippine Press
1941 - 1942
Dec. 8, 1941 - Japanese forces entered Manila
Jan 2, 1942 – Manila declared as Open City
Apr 9, 1942 – Fall of Bataan, Death March
Philippine guerrilla movement continues to grow
Bureau of Constabulary - opposing the guerrillas
Kempeitai (Japanese military police corps)
Makapili (military group aimed to give military aid and intel to Japan)
Hukbalahap - anti-Japanese guerilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon
1944 - 1945
Oct 20, 1944 – return of Douglas McArthur
Oct 23-26, 1944 – battle of Leyte Gulf
Sep 2, 1945 – Japanese forces formally surrendered
Tribune, La Vanguardia, Taliba
Leading newspaper chain during its time
The only newspaper chain allowed to be published under the Japanese censorship
Liwayway – (also owned by the Roces) weekly magazine; also used as a propaganda material
January 2, 1942 – 6 Japanese forces took over TVT Company in Florentino Torres Street
January 3 – P.10 to P.05, 4-page, tabloid-like Tribune was released
David T. Boguslav - Tribune's assoc. editors was arrested for internment as an enemy national six days after the invasion
Editorials of the wartime Tribune were irregular affairs that dealt only on such important events (surrender of Singapore, attempted assassination of Jose P. Laurel Sr., etc.)
February 3, 1945 - the day when it put out its last issue
Depended exclusively on the Japanese-operated Domei
Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company - took over other newspapers
Manila Sinbun-sya – Japanese newspaper published in the country
Hidezo Kaneka – executive editor
Newspaper that were allowed to be published was used by the Japanese as a propaganda
Mail Censorship Act
In 1943, censorship was given the mantle of legality with the passing of the Mail Censorship Act
“All mail matters deposited in the post office for transmission wither within or outside the Philippines will, before being transmitted to their addressees,
be submitted to censorship for any hostile, unfriendly, or subversive matter, or for any matter which may impair the good and friendly relations the Philippines has with other countries or for matters which contain false and malicious propaganda intended to incite a feeling of hostility or unfriendliness against other powers
Late December, 1941 – DMHM (Debate, Mabuhay, Herald, Monday Mail), TVT’s rival company, was destroyed
Official Journal of the Japanese Military Administration
Contains proclamation, notifications, and orders of the Commander in Chief of the Japanese Imperial Forces and the Director General of the Japanese Military administration
Also contains the executive orders issued by the Chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission
Selling price: P .30 per copy
Denial of free expression during the occupation was absolute and, oftentimes, brutally enforced
Little known acts of heroism by some members of the profession worried the occupation officials to no end
Example: Story of an issue of the Taliba (sister daily in Tagalog) which showed an upside down cut of Japanese navy ships kempei-tai investigated the paper’s staff
On the whole, the basic urge of the Filipino newspaperman to express himself was suppressed with an iron hand for four long, dreary years
The Tribune carried under its masthead the proud slogan “Independent Filipino Daily”
Written by journalist-guerillas
Typewritten or mimeographed
8 ½ x 11-inch paper
Provide the people with counter information
Despite threats that possession of a copy would mean death, the people continued to patronize them
To empower the soldiers' and people's morale and aid as counter propaganda against the Japanese
Leones, Clod (1963). The press during the Japanese regime. In Teodoro, Luis V. & De Jesus, Melinda Q. (2001), The Filipino press and media, democracy, and development (pp. 71-73). Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Press.
Sumulong, Sassy Mae C. (2002). History of Journalism in the Philippines. Oocities. Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://rocesfamily.com/sm2002/rocesphils/japanese.htm.
Trota Jose, Ricardo (1990). The Tribune during the Japanese occupation. Philippine Studies, 38 (1), 45-64.
Rosario-Braid, Frorangel & Tuazon, Ramon R. (1999). Communication media in the Philippines: 1521-1986. Philippine Studies, 47 (3), 291-318.