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Education 2120: People of Color Presentation

Race and Oppression: The Experience of People of Color in America

Courtney Hand

on 6 December 2016

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Transcript of Education 2120: People of Color Presentation

Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs gave speeches and wrote about slavery.
Race and Oppression: The Experience of People of Color in America
Works Cited
American anti-slavery and civil rights timeline. (1999). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/more/timeline.htm

Koppelman, K. & Goodhart, R. L. (2011). Understanding human differences: Multicultural education for a diverse America. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Sawh, R. (2006). Middle passage in the triangular slave trade: The west indies. Negro Educational Review, 57(3/4), 155.

Martin Luther King Jr. and the global freedom struggle. Retrieved from http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronology_contents

Lynching in the South
• In 1914 the crisis published the names of 2732 blacks that were lynched between 1885 and 1914, but that number was low because of unrecorded lynches.
• The House of Representatives passed anti-lynching laws in 1922, 1937, and 1940, but southern senators blocked them. However, in 2005 the senate issued an apology for not passing the laws.

How were black indentured servants treated differently?
By the mid 1800's different rules for black servants were made "based on assumptions of black inferiority."
Africans were forced to live permanently as slaves and so were their children
Africans were easily identified by skin color
"From the late 1500's to early 1800's more than 10 million Africans were brought to America."
Slavery During the Civil War
The Underground Railroad
Late 1700's to Mid 1800's
Named for the popularity of the Rail Roads
A network of safe houses 10 to 20 miles apart where escaping slaves could seek food and shelter and still avoid detection by slave owners
Helping slaves was considered a criminal activity and punishable by federal law.
Some slaves even had guides or "conductors" to help them navigate the railroad
Slaves Fighting in the Civil War
Slaves inhibited the productivity of the Confederacy by giving information to Northern troops, refusing to work, and escaping to join the Union troops themselves.
Freed black slaves were not allowed to fight in the war until the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.
Over 200,000 blacks enlisted and by August of 1863 there were 14 black regiments were trained and ready to fight.
Black soldiers were not paid equal wages to white soldiers until 1865
Shaping the New South
After the war black men were given the right to vote and run for political office and over 600 were elected to state legislatures.
Southern white supremacist formed groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, in response to the new black rights to political power which used bribery and violence to attempt to get blacks to resign from office and keep them from voting.
Though federal law prohibited the harassment of blacks who attempted to vote, President Harrison pulled federal troops out of the south in 1877 leaving southern blacks virtually defenseless against racist whites.
Southern Transformation
Many blacks decided that obtaining an education was their only way of combating white supremacists.
Though blacks now had the right to free public education, most southern funding went to white private schools.
In 1881, Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute where blacks were taught skills for agricultural, domestic and factory work which soon attracted additional funding from northerners.
W.E.B. Du Bois and the NAACP
W.E.B. Du Bois was the first black Harvard graduate and he believed that, if given the opportunity blacks could demonstrate academic ability.
Unlike Booker T. Washington, he did not think that social inequality for blacks was acceptable under any conditions.
Du Bois supported vocational training for blacks as opposed to strict manual labor.
Du Bois was very out spoken about his beliefs of black equality and founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910 and the American Negro Academy to support black intellectuals.
Murdered masters
Deceived owners into teaching them how to read and write (Sometimes converting to Christianity)
Disfigured themselves to make their bodies less able for their owners
Resistance to Slavery
Most popularly known rebellion: led by Nat Turner in February 1831
Where and how did the British procure Africans?
By the 17th century British merchants had a strong trade relationship with West Africa
Slaves were traded for goods such as copper, silk, glassware, ammunition and guns. (Sawh, 2006)
African slaves were often prisoners of war, some were sentenced to slavery in order to pay off a debt or for crime they had committed, others were simply captured
90% of all African Americans are descended from West African ancestors
Slaves were brought over on large ships
Opposition to
Ran away and escaped
Anti-slavery Organizations
1775: PA Quakers
The Revolutionary War
In beginning, slaves were not allowed to fight.
"Until lions have their historians,
tales of the hunt will
always glorify the hunter"
Death On Board
Major causes of death on board were diseases such as: typhoid, small pox, yellow fever & malaria
Some slaves died of suffocation and overheating. (Sawh, 2006)
Bodies of the deceased were thrown overboard which lead sharks to follow the slave ships
When the slaves became aware of the sharks many jumped overboard to escape their misery
An estimated 5 to 6 million Africans died during the Middle Passage and many that survived were permanently disabled
The Middle Passage
Video Clip:

"There were no beds given the slaves, unless one coarse blanket be considered such, and none but the men and women had these...They find less difficulty from the want of beds, than from the want of time to sleep; for when their day's work in the field is done, the most of them having their washing, mending, and cooking to do.... and when this is done, old and young, male and female, married and single, drop down side by side, on one common bed,--the cold, damp floor,--each covering himself or herself with their miserable blankets; and here they sleep till they are summoned to the field by the driver's horn." Frederick Douglass, from The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, 1845
"Not all Africans sent to the New World arrived; a third are believed
to have died during what is called the Middle Passage"
Conditions on Board
Male slaves were given a space 6 feet long and 18 inches wide, the women and children were given even less space
There was no room to sit up and often slaves were packed in the ship in a "spoon" position to maximize space
There were large buckets that were to be used as toilets, the buckets often overflowed and many slaves were not able to access the buckets and were forced to soil themselves
What was it like to
be a slave?
Slavery existed in the North however it never gained popularity like it did in the south on plantations
Slaves worked as much as 18 hours a day with short breaks to eat
Slaves who were not working were severely punished, usually by whipping
The slaves sleeping quarters were over crowded and very low quality
Women had it worse than men and were often sexually abused
Slavery made plantation owners extremely rich
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the famous book Uncle Tom's Cabin.
1785: NY Quakers
1777: Vermont abolished slavery in State Constitution
1783: NH and MS did same
British started promising slaves emancipation.
George Washington changed his policy to allow free African Americans to join.
Colonial militias permitted both free and enslaved African Americans to join
U.S Constitution
Did nothing to help slaves.
Declaration of Independence: slavery = "execrable"
Made slave owners pay taxes on imported slaves, which profited the North.
After about 20 years, anti-slavery groups convinced congress to pass a law stopping the importation of slaves
3/5 Clause: The South had a big population of slaves and wanted more representation because of it.
The best know conductor was Harriet Tubman who helped over 300 slaves escape the south, There was even a $40,000 reward offered by southern slave holders for her capture.
An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, Particularly the African, by Thomas Clarkson is the single most influential antislavery work of the late 18th century("American anti-slavery and," 1999).
Quote from a Slave
• The response from white people was to address the problem with violence. There was a use of fire hoses, dogs, and clubs to assault unarmed black people.
• One very devastating event that took place was at the 16th Street Baptist Church, where four girls were killed as the result of a bomb going off. (history.com)
• Whites who were a part of the Freedom Writers were attacked as well as the blacks and local law enforcement and the FBI did nothing to stop it.
• There were some good that came out of the civil rights movement such as congress passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting rights Act of 1965.
On January 1, 1980 Juneteenth became an official state holiday through the efforts of Al Edwards, an African American state legislator.
June 19th grew into a celebration that was a time of remembrance, praying and gathering of family and friends.
Some people make the trek back to Galveston to participate in festivals.
The main focus of the gathering is to acknowledge African American freedom and achievement while encouraging self development and education.

To be free . . . to walk the good American earth as equal citizens, to live without fear, to enjoy the fruits of our toil, to give our children every opportunity in life--that dream which we have held so long in our hearts is today the destiny that we hold in our hands.
-Paul Robeson, singer/actor
Many cities host festivals that include:
African drumming and dancing
Arts and crafts
Stilt walking
Gospel Mimes
Spoken word
and music of all kinds!
Juneteenth Festivals
Started back in 1865
Celebrates the official end of slavery in Texas on June 19, 1865.
Although the Emancipation Proclamation was made by President Lincoln in 1863 Texas slaves were not considered free.
Major General Gordon Granger landed in Galveston, Texas with news that the war was over and the slaves were now free.
One of the Major Generals first order of business was to read to the people of Texas, General Order Number 3 which simply states that the new relationship between slave and slave master was employer and employee.

History of Juneteenth
Our Freedom Quilt
A freedom quilt is a quilt that slaves looked for when running away to the north.
The quilts were set out by people who were a part of The Underground Railroad to mark their home as a safe place to hide.
Under the Quilt of the Night by Deborah Hopkinson

Elementary School
Robert Burleigh's inspiring story captures the magical moment when Langston Hughes came to believe in himself as a writer, as he first wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers."
This picture book tells the story of Langston Hughes's rise to accomplishing his dream of being a writer. With bold, striking illustrations by Leonard Jenkins, here is a book for any young person with a dream.

Middle School
The Watsons Go to Birmingham – 1963 is a historical-fiction novel by Christopher Paul Curtis. It was written in 1995 and republished in 1997. It tells the story of a loving African-American family, living in the town of Flint, Michigan in 1963. When the oldest son begins to get into a bit of trouble, the parents decide he should spend some time with his strict grandmother (Mrs. Watson's mother) in Birmingham, Alabama. The entire family travels there together by car, and during their visit, tragic events take place that affect them collectively.

High School
When pale strangers enter fifteen-year-old Amari's village, her entire tribe welcomes them; for in her remote part of Africa, visitors are always a cause for celebration. But these strangers are not here to celebrate. They are here to capture the strongest, healthiest villagers and to murder the rest. They are slave traders. And in the time it takes a gun to fire, Amari's life as she knows it is destroyed, along with her family and village.
• Migration increased during the time of World War I (1914-1918).
• At the end of the war more than one million southern blacks had moved to cities in the north.
• In 1900 Chicago had 30,000 blacks, and then in 1920 Chicago had 109,000 blacks. By 1930, over two million southern blacks had migrated to Chicago.
• By the end of 1919, some 1 million blacks had left the South, usually traveling by train, boat or bus; a smaller number had automobiles or even horse-drawn carts. (history.com)
Migration of Southern Blacks
Achievements of the Civil Rights Movement
• Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks helped conduct a bus boycott to help end segregation on public transportation.
• A woman named Claudette Colvin was arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus on March 2nd 1955. (encyclopedia)

• In February 1960, four black college freshmen entered a store and sat at a lunch counter that only served whites.
• During the 1960s, the south was the main stage for marches, protests, and demonstrations
• In 1963, there were over 1,400 events in just three months.
Some important people during the civil rights movement were Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X.
Malcolm X was part of the Nation of Islam until he found out the leader was indulging in corrupt behavior. (malcolmx.com)
Black Panther Party was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, and it attracted black youth in urban areas.
Important People during the civil rights movement
Achievements of
the Civil Rights
African American Skin Color and Hair
• People who came from hot places near the equator, such as countries in Africa, have the darkest skin.
• People from these areas need more melanin to protect their skin from burning.
• In African hair, the cells divide at an uneven rate, resulting in the hair bending in one direction then another, causing a curl.

• The amount of curl depends on how fast the rate of the cell division shifts from one side.

Write one thing you learned from our lesson
Decorate your quilt square
Once you are finished place your square on the quilt.

Harlem Renaissance
“ Lunch Counter” Resistance in NC
70,000 students
Economics losses force sales
law enforcement used dogs; fire hoses; clubs
Seen, recorded, distributed, informed, appalled
Malcolm X
Not just civil rights but their human rights
Black Panther Party (1966)
Whites saw them as a paramilitary organization
Police raids; imprisonment; murder charges; violent assults
Mid 1970s= few members

Civil Rights Movement= More Violence
14 year old visits Mississippi
“ bye, baby” to a white woman
Murdered by husband
Face shown nationwide
Rosa Parks
Bus boycott
1+ year

Civil Rights

Military Employment
(new) engineer corps
(new) pilot training
(new) officer training
(new) marine corps recruiting
(1948) US Armed Forces desegregated
Defeat of Nazi Germany
Gandhi's success for India’s Independence encouraged blacks
Brown vs Board

WWII Gains

Fair Labor Standards Act
Minimum wage (excluded agriculture and domestic work, which were mainly blacks)
Supporter of Mary Bethune
Mary Bethune
Created Federal Council of Negro Affairs
30 blacks who advised the presidents aka the Black Cabinet

Black farmers
Ejected from their own property
Most did not accept blacks (1930s)
Ratio blacks to whites ¾: 1
Some refused in soup kitchens!
FDR help us!
New Deal= New Rules

New Deal

Mount Zion Baptist Church 1921

Klu Klux Klan
1920s= 5 million members
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Black community burned
Rosewood, Florida
Same incident
50 chapters to 500+!

After WWI

Blacks and whites fought
1st black battalion of the 369th infantry
Awards/ Parades
Awarded Croix de Guerre
No invite from US Army to parade
Gold Stars
Mother’s who lost son’s
White travel expenses only.

After WWI

All kinds came!
The Lindy Hop
Duke Ellington @ Cotton Club
Louis Armstrong @ Savoy
Langston Hughes (poetry)
Jean Toomer ( novels)
WEB Du Bois
Diverse blacks with a variety of motives and goals
Still segregated


“Had it not been our art and our culture, when all else was ripped from us, we would never had been able to survive as a people.”
Harry Belafonte
Freedom Riders
Bus rides= mobs and injured blacks and whites
Civil Rights Acts
Voting Rights Acts


"2013 Black History Month Recommended Reading List." Just Read, Florida!. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. <http://www.justreadflorida.com/bhm.asp>.

People and Events: Lynching in America. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/peopleevents/e_lynch.html

The Great Migration. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/great-migration
Birmingham Church Bombing. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/birmingham-church-bombing

Biography of Malcolm X. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.malcolmx.com/about/bio2.html
Full transcript