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Topic Two: Electromagnetic Radiation in Medical Imaging

(CT scans)

Delilah Green

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Topic Two: Electromagnetic Radiation in Medical Imaging

By Emily Ditchfield Topic Two: CT Scanners How does it work? (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr When was it Invented, and by who? http://inventors.about.com/od/xyzstartinventions/a/x-ray_2.htm
http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jun/07/ct-scans-study-brain-cancer-1 Bibliography Sir Godfrey Hounsfield invented the CT scanner. In 1967 he had conceived the idea for a CT scanner. On the 1st of October 1971 it was introduced into medical practice. And by 1972 he had made a CT Scanner that could produce detailed cross-section images of the brain in less than 5 minutes What Negative Impacts are There? What are some Limitations? Pregnancy Effects Internal Defects Cancer Radiation Soft-Tissue Weight/Size Pregnancy CT scanners take x-raying to the next level. The patient lies on a motorized bed that makes its way through a tunnel shaped machine. As the body moves through the CT scanner, a set of x-ray scanners take 'slices' or images of the body. A CT scanner emits a series of narrow beams, as it moves in an arc shape. Inside the CT scanner there is a detector that sees levels of density throughout the body, this builds a 3D cross-sectional image that's sent to a computer. Sometimes to show a body part more clearly, dye is placed in the body CT scanners contain as much as 500 times the amount of a conventional x-ray.
Excess amounts of radiation can cause many defects and illnesses including radiation poisoning or sickness. Radiation also increases the chance of getting cancer. And due to this extreme amount of radiation in CT scanners, millions of patients who have this procedure done are being put at risk of cancer. There could be DNA damage, where there is cell mutation, cell suicide and random cell division. Inflammation around the heart, respiratory and vision failure are symptoms, but extreme amounts of radiation can lead to permanent cell damage. The fetus can be damaged in extreme amounts by radiation, changing the structure of the cell development. Ultrasound and MRI tests are better performed on pregnant women, as to make sure that their unborn child is not effected by the radiation. Soft tissue areas, such as brain, internal pelvic organs or joints, are better scanned and evaluated in an MRI scan. A person who is too large to fit in the opening of the scanner unit or weighs over 450kg would be unable to use a CT scanner. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jun/07/ct-scans-study-brain-cancer-1 This news article outlines the extreme risks of the ionizing radiation that CT scans contain. With every CT scan comes extra risk of not only tumors, but also leukemia. Concern is heavily shown for the children who receive head scans before the age of ten.The article pushes doctors and medical clinics to find alternatives like an MRI scanner. It shows that the gains must outweigh the risks if a CT scan if it is to be performed. News Article
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