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The 18th century
Transcript of The 18th century
The 18th century
Carl von Linné (Linnaeus)
Early "parties" in the Riksdag
Hats and Caps
Huge defeat for poorly prepared Sweden
All of Finland lost to Russia!
Russia agrees to return Finland in exchange for Sweden choosing Adolph Fredrik and Lovisa Ulrika of Holstein-Gottorp as future king and queen of Sweden (Fredrik I had no heir)
Stora daldansen - people from Dalarna (and Denmark) want Danish royalty to succeed to the Swedish throne
The Hats need to ask Russia for
help defending Sweden's
Gustav III (r. 1771-1792)
Coup d'état in 1771 after the
death of his father
King gains much more power,
but still not entirely independent
of the Riksdag
Weakens the nobility,
strengthens the peasantry
"Philosopher king" -
Francophile, tour of Italy, abolishes torture
Grandiose building plans
Grandiose war plans
Disastrous war with Russia 1788-1790
Swedish colony 1784-1878
Obtained from France in exchange for trading rights in Gothenburg
Religious and national diversity
Mostly capitalizes on Sweden's neutrality during major wars - becomes a major trading port to avoid blockades/embargoes
1744 - Johan Helmich Roman
What is the author trying to accomplish?
Is the author taking a position in a debate?
What theories, if any, does the author use?
Does the author apply the theories well?
What is the research question?
Does the author answer their own research question?
What are the author's main arguments?
Do you buy it???
What alternative explanations might there be?
Ipsen and Fur (2009)
pp. 37 - 54
pp. 55 - 75
pp. 149 - 215
Readings for Monday
After Karl XII's death in 1719, Ulrika Eleonora becomes regent for one year
Sweden's empire crumbles, seriously threatened by Russia
Unfavorable peace settlement - loses Estonia, Livonia (Latvia), Karelia and Kexholm (near St. Petersburg) to Russia, must pay Danish Öresund tolls
Ulrika's husband, Fredrik of Hesse, becomes king
Ascendancy of the Riksdag - gains the powers of lawmaking and taxation
Peace and stability
Peasants and clergy
(reduced national debt
after Russian war)
Freedom of the press
bureaucrats and merchants
Want to retake Sweden's
lost Baltic empire
Initiate War with Russia
Alliance with France
East India Company
Trade for luxury goods in China, the East Indies
First Swedish Limited
40% return on investments!
37 ships, 132 voyages
East Indiaman Götheborg
Silver for porcelain, silks, other luxury goods - not necessarily good for Sweden's economy
First to discover that
landmass is rising
Celsius scale with 100º C as
freezing and 0º C as boiling
Came up with a world-famous classification system with Latin
Expeditions to Lappland
Links to colonialism
Disciples sent around the world
Open book, open note
No electronic devices
50% history, 50% religion
Short answer questions to make sure you understand key events and people
Reading comprehension questions
about the articles
Prepare by reading all of the articles
and taking notes
What kind of text is this? What is the context?
What are the authors trying to accomplish?
Are the authors taking a position in a debate?
What is the main argument?
In what ways were Nordic countries involved
in European colonialism?
According to this text, why have Scandinavians
been poor at recognizing their colonial past?