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History of Chicago: Architecture

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Kelsey Schaver

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of History of Chicago: Architecture

Chicago Architecture Marshall Field Building Designed by D.H. Burnham & Company
Interior follows the Chicago School of Architecture (12)
First store with bathrooms, food services, window displays, and escalators
Original building destroyed in Chicago Fire and reconstructed in 1893 and 1914 by Daniel Burnham & Company
Two 7 ton bronze clocks installed in 1907 decorate two corners (1)
Louis Comfort Tiffany designed the ceiling mosaic and chandeliers atop the 4 story atrium
1.6 million piece mosaic ceiling is hand blown Favrile glass and took 50 men 1.5 years to complete The Monadnock Jackson & Dearborn
Built 1880-1889 The Rookery 209 South LaSalle Street
Built in 1885-1888 Wabash & Washington
Built in 1892-1907 Designed by Burnham & Root
One of the first buildings to make use of a light court (3)
Frank Lloyd Wright's 1903 updates give a sense of weightlessness through balconies, stairways, and supports (12)
Restored 3 times
Known for its red granite, brick, and terra-cotta ornamentation The Auditorium Building 430 South Michigan Avenue
Built in 1887-1890 Designed by Sullivan & Adler (12)
Once the world's tallest building
Called "the world's finest opera house" and seen as the start of "American architecture"
Housed a hotel, opera house, and offices
Had 5,000 lights, 150 footlights, and seated 4,000
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra played in the Exposition Building until its chief patron Ferdinand Peck commissioned the building of the Auditorium (15)
Sullivan's long bar on the ground floor was the start of 'Art Noveau'
First building in Chicago with air conditioning The Chicago Cultural Center 78 East Washington Street
Built in 1897 Designed by Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge Architecture Firm (12)
The request to design the building similar to the Colombian Exposition went against Prairie School education
Largest Tiffany glass dome, fading from deep blue to aqua blue (5)
Gold leaf accents in the motif on the white Italian marble staircase (6)
Romanesque columns on exterior walls
Made as the library to house books donated by Queen Elizabeth II (8) The Manhattan 431 South Dearborn Street
Built in 1889-1891 Designed by William LeBaron Jenny (16)
First building built entirely of a steel frame
Renaissance style architecture
Begins with a plinth which looks delicate
3 stories of arched windows on the top look to be another building set on top of the main building
Terra-cotta ornamentation features smiling and frowning faces as well as small leaf designs (9) The Santa Fe 244 South Michigan Avenue
Built in 1903-1904 Designed by D.H. Burnham & Company (12)
Evokes "White City" classicism
Light court converted to atrium
Elevators are used as part of the design
Originally called the Railway Exchange Building
The saloon decorated with murals of ancient Rome now functions as a conference room for The Chicago Architecture Foundation (9)
Cite of Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago Tribune Tower 435 North Michigan Avenue
Built in 1922-1925 Designed by Hood and Howells (13)
Controversial winner of the 1925 Tribune design competition
Very elaborate and ornate (11)
Gothic-revival style
Designed like the Butter Tower of the Rouen Cathedral in France
Walls hold stones from world famous monuments (9)
Tower is circled by 8 flying buttresses
Top floor offices are connected by secret passages
Doorway is covered with images of Aesop's Fables The Wrigley Building 400 North Michigan Avenue
Built in 1920-1922 Designed by Graham, Anderson, Probst & White (13)
North addition added in 1924
Beaux-Art design
French Renaissance ornament
Tower modeled after Giralda Tower in Seville, Spain
Made of white terra-cotta
None of the corners are at 90 degree angles (9) The London Guarantee & Accident Building 360 North Michigan Avenue
Built in 1922-1923 Designed by Alfred S. Alschuler (13)
Made of limestone
Greco-Roman style
Law stated that any building over 260 feet high could not be occupied so they added the cupola on top
Grand entrance is flanked by Corinthian columns (11)
The upper section has a classical colonnade, a balustraded cornice, and a domed pavilion
Part of the Beaux-Arts movement Palmer House 101 South State Street
Built in 1925-1927 Buckingham Fountain 500 South Lake Shore Drive
Built in 1927 Designed by Holabird and Roche (13)
Most famous historic hotel
Potter Palmer and his architects toured Europe for ideas for Potter's hotel
The most obvious example of 'French historic' architecture is the Napoleonic Empire Room Designed by Bennet, Parsons, Thomas & Frost (13)
Inspired by the Bassin de Latome
Designed similar to the Latona Fountain in the gardens at the Palace of Versailles
Each "seahorse" sculpted by Marcel Loyau represents the four states touching Lake Michigan
Made of pink Georgia marble
Kate Buckingham donated the fountain to Chicago as a memorial for her late brother, Clarence Buckingham Board of Trade 141 West Jackson Boulevard
Built in 1929-1930 Designed by Holabird and Root (12)
Style was simple and elegant
Vertical lines give a sense of power
In the courtyard is a clock topped by and eagle. On either side is an Indian holding corn and a bearded man holding wheat (9)
Ceres, ancient roman goddess of agriculture, is atop the building Board of Trade Addition Built in 1981 Designed by C.F. Murphy Association and internationally famous Helmut Jahn was the architect (13)
Jahn combined history and setting
The new roof line echoes the original roof line
12th floor atrium is based on a similar design in the original building Carbide and Carbon Building 230 North Michigan Avenue
Built in 1928-1929 Designed by the Burnham brothers of D.H. Burnham & Company (13)
Art-Deco style
Made of green, black, and gold toned brick and terra-cotta
Now the Hard Rock Hotel
Legend says it was designed to resemble a dark green champagne bottle (9) The Inland Steel Building 30 West Monroe Street
Built in 1956-1958 Designed by Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (12)
19 stories high
Second building constructed in Chicago after the Depression (Prudential)
It's modern design for its time gave the company an appeal to buyers (13) John Hancock 875 North Michigan Avenue
Built in 1965-1969 Designed by Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (12)
Its diagonal trusses were am engineering triumph
Tapered design gave way to offices on bottom floors and apartments on top floors
100 stories, 1127 feet tall (13)
Member of the World Federation of Great Towers (9)
First building outside of New York to be over 1,000 feet tall
First trussed-tube skyscraper ever built
Chief engineer Fazlur Khan tested subjects at the Museum of Science & Industry to see if they could handle the sway of the building comfortably
America's highest indoor swimming pool (44th floor) Marina City 300 North State Street
Built in 1959-1964 Designed by Bertrand Goldberg (12)
Goldberg was a student of Mies van der Rohe but he rejected van der Rohe's ideals of impersonality and formality
Created a sense of neighborhood in the city
Includes a short rectangle building as well as the House of Blues (13)
60 stories high
Built the core and then used it as a crane to lift whole floors into place from bottom to top
Nicknamed 'Chicago's corncobs' Sears (Willis) Tower 233 South Wacker Drive
Built in 1970-1974 Designed by Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (12)
Its steel-tubed design was an engineering anomaly
Has 9 self-contained vertical sections
Reflects a slight Art-Deco style of the 1920's
The columns actually work around mechanical systems, maximize natural light, and give a feeling of power
World's tallest building until 1996 (9)
Lobby is decorated with metal tiles based on the tubed architecture State of Illinois Center 100 West Randolph Street
Built in 1983-1985 Designed by Murphy/Jahn (12)
One of the most controversial buildings in Chicago
Architect Helmut Jahn found a sense of drama in the complexity of modern design
17 story atrium in center
Houses government offices and extra building on top denotes ancient government buildings and the dome they all had (13)
The foundation deviated from the usual 'grid' which maximizes floor space, creating a large plaza
Colors are red, white, and blue 333 West Wacker 333 West Wacker Drive
Built in 1981-1983 Designed by Kohn Penderson Fox (12)
Fits snugly into the bend of the Chicago River
Considered to be one of the best buildings of the 1980's
Architects won an Honors Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1984 (9)
South and East corner base is serrated
Design is postmodern
Glass wall appears green and reflects the bend of the river and water The Harold Washington Library 400 South State Street
Built in 1991 Designed by Hammond, Beeby & Babka (12)
Winning design of competition
Reflects Chicago- Chicago School of Architecture style, Columbian Exposition, and Mies van der Rohe
"White Garden" atrium Online Works Cited 1. Stevens, Caroline N. "Marshall Field's Store." BLUEPRINT: Chicago. N.p., 30 Mar. 2010. google.com. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.

2. Monadnock. N.p., n.d. google.com. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.

3. wttw. Chicago Architecture Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.

4. The Rookery: Chicago's Beloved Icon. N.p., 2012. google.com. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.

5. "Chicago Cultural Center- General Information." City of Chicago. N.p., 2010. google.com. Web. 28 Dec. 2012.

6. "Chicago Cultural Center." Explore Chicago. N.p., 2012. google.com. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.

7. Ed. Rolph Achilles. Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs, 1999. google.com. Web. 3 Dec. 2012

8. Seeger, Nancy. "The People's Palace: The Story of the Chicago Cultural Center." City of Chicago.

9. Emporis. Cityscape, n.d. google.com. Web. 28 Dec. 2012. Print Works Cited 10. Bach, Ira J., ed. Chicago's Famous Buildings. Third ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. 8-103. Print.

11. Pridmore, Jay. A View from the River. Rhonert Park: Pomegranate Communications, Inc., 2000. 15-82. Print.

12. Larson, George A., and Jay Pridmore. Chicago Architecture and Design. New York: Harry M. Abrams, Incorporated, 1993. 15-227. Print.

13. Zukowsky, John, and Martha Thorne. Masterpieces of Chicago Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 2004. 28-218. Print.

14. Merwood-Salisbury, Joanna. Chicago 1890: The Skyscraper and the Modern City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. 1-144. Print.

15. Lowe, David G. Lost Chicago. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2000. 1-235. Print.

16. Zukowsky, John, ed. Chicago Architecture 1872-1922. Munich: Pretsel-Verlag, 1987. 1-344. Print. Designed by Burnham & Root
16 stories, 215 feet high (14)
Almost completely void of ornament
Deep chocolate/purple brown
Sleek curve at base
Called the 'fountainhead of modern architecture' because of simple design
Possibly the largest load bearing building (3)
Settled more than 20 inches after construction was finished
The name possibly came from Ralph Waldo Emerson's 'Monadnoc' The Monadnock Each technically separate building is the name of a mountain in New England and Union Army ships
Expanded in 1893 by Holabird & Roche
The Chicago Tribune reported that the Postmaster divided it into 4 zones with 4 different carriers- each carrier made 6 deliveries a day to 6,000 occupants in 1200 rooms, handling 25,000 pieces of mail daily
Currently has: 3 restaurants, 2 clothing stores, a bank, candy shop, barber shop, hat shop, shoe hospital, launders, vintage printing press, travel agency, storage units, and 4 mail chutes (2) The Rookery Described as Moorish, Romanesque, Commercial, Indian, Venetian, Arabian, Islamic, and Byzantine (4)
LaSalle Street lobby's balcony has Arabic motifs on the archway
Cite of some of the Colombian Exposition Plans
The water tower held books after the Chicago Fire
On the National Registry of Historic Places
Named for the birds that roosted in the water tower on top and Chicago's 'rooks'
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