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Copy of Food Chemistry: Hershey's Milk Chocolate Candy Bar

What exactly is inside a Hershey's Milk Chocolate Candy Bar? How do chemicals affect it?
by

kyle anne taala

on 6 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Food Chemistry: Hershey's Milk Chocolate Candy Bar

Plants get their energy through a process called photosynthesis
In the process, Carbon Dioxide (6CO-2-), Water (6H-2-O), and Sunlight are combined to form Glucose (C-6-H-12-O-6-) and Oxygen (6O-2-)
The plants then use the Glucose (a type of sugar) as energy, and any excess glucose is stored in the leaves, stem, and roots
Starting out - Photosynthesis
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are organic compunds that occur widely in plants and animals
They are the polymers, or structual units of most naturally occuring carbohydrates (sugars)
Since they are the structural units of Carbohydrates, they would also be found in Milk Chocolate, helping support the Lactose
Triglycerides
Triglycerides are a type of fats, mostly found in plants, such as the cocoa plant
Plants first store their excess glucose as carbohydrates, but later those are converted into triglycerides, or fats.
Because some fats are transfered and placed in seeds, such as the cocoa pod/bean, we can find them abundant in chocolates, as well as coffee and nuts
Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids
Lipids are a relatively large group of organic compounds
Insoluable to water
Includes fats, oils and waxes
Saturated Lipids usually have higher melting points than Unsaturated Lipids
Saturated Lipids only have single bonds, while Unsaturated Lipids can have double or triple bonds
See the hydrocarbon images for more details
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates,sometimes refered to as monosaccharides or simple sugars, are sugars as the name implies
The specific Carbohydrate (or sugars) in Milk Chocolate is Lactose, which is commonly found in milk
Lactose is a Complex Carbohydrate, because it conatins more than one monosaccharide/simple sugar
http://3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=58#
You can also find added table sugar, which is also known as Sucrose
Proteins
Proteins are very important to our health, as they perform several vital tasks
Some of these include providing structural support for cells, fighting bacteria, and make up enzymes (enzymes control the rate in which a chemical reaction occurs)
Just as with Nucleic Acids, Proteins are required for animals, specifically cows, to grow as they need to be able to support large numbers of cells and fight off diseases/infections.
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids, more commonily known as DNA and RNA, are just as important to our health as Proteins
They store the blueprints for creating new cells and hold our genes
This come into Milk Chocolate because of the milk, created by cows, and the cocoa beans/pods, but for either of them to become mature enough to produce these things, they would have to grow
Growing requires the production of cells so that the body can support itself.
The ingrediants and their groups
Sugar, Chocolate, Cocoa Butter, Cocoa Processed with Alkali, Milk Fat, Lactose, Soy Lecithin, PGPR, Vanillin, Artificial Flavor, and Milk
Sugar - A carbohydrate (It's Sucrose)
Chocolate (unadulturated, made of Cocoa paste) - Triglycerides/Lipids
Cocoa Butter - Lipids
Cocoa Processed with Alkali (a method in which a base is used to extract Cocoa powder to form a paste) - A mixture which includes carbohydrates
Milk Fat - Lipid
Lactose - Carbohydrate
Soy Lecithin (an extraction of soybeans/Soybean Oil) - Lipid
PGPR (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate: condensed fatty acids from castor oil) - Lipid/Triglyceride
Vanillin (an extract from the vanilla bean that is cheaper than regular vanilla) - Lipid/Triglyceride
Artificial Flavor - There is no information about what the Artificial Flavor is made of
Milk - Carbohydrate/Lipid
Hydrocarbons
An organic compund that consists only of Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen
Saturated Hydrocarbons are composed entirely of single bonds
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds
Aromatic Hydrocarbons have at least one aromatic ring ------------------------------>
An organic compound must have Hydrogen and Carbon, just like Hydrocarbons
^Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chocolate:
7 Carbon
8 Hydrogen
4 Nitrogen
2 Oxygen
As you can see here, this atom contains 10 single bonds and 4 double bonds, making it an unsaturated hydrocarbon, right?
Wrong - Hydrocarbons only have Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen, but this also has Nitrogen molecules
Below is a Saturated Hydrocarbon, because it consists only of Carbon and Hydrogen, and it has only single bonds
To the left is an Unsaturated Hydrocarbon, because it consists only of Carbon and Hydrogen, and it has double bonds as well as singles
+
+ Sunlight ---->
+
^Starch, a common triglyceride
The enzyme lactase breaks down lactose, and can help lactose-intolerant people eat chocolate and drink milk.
Carbon
Carbon is an important aspect of life because a Carbon molecule can bond with up to four other molecules
Full transcript