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Transcript of Timeline
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Sir John A. Macdonald wanted to unite the dominion of Canada into a country with a the pacific railroad.
That meant the Government had to get the titles for Rupert's Land and North West Territory from Hudson Bay's Company, which was transferred to the government by 1869.
The First Nation's titles must also be taken to build the railroad, the government knew they would never give it up. The First Nations signed the numbered treaties for the government to claim the lands bit by bit. The return for the surrendered land were annuity payment, smaller fraction of the original land as reserves and the right to continue trap, hunt and fish on the surrendered land.
The government used the "submit or starve" strategy. The First Nations were dying from disease outbreaks, plus the near-extinction of plains bison, they were eager to receive help from the government. In exchange for the aid, the government asked for the land, not giving the First Nations any room for negotiation.
The Numbered Treaties, 1871-1921
Residential Schools, 1879-1996
The Charter stated that if there are any rights to use the Aboriginal language, they can continue to exist, though not under direct protection.
Section 25 of the Charter states that it does not derogate existing Aboriginal rights and freedoms.
Section 35 of the Charter states that the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal people of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed. This included the Indians, Inuit and Métis.
This allowed the aboriginals to officially declare self-governance and being recognized by the government as a significant minority group.
How have the collective rights of First Nations changed over time?
Designed to protect the land the First Nations. However, the land still belonged to the crown.
Used the Indian Agent to give land to the First Nations.
The act was passed without the consult of the First Nations. The government believed their culture was superior to Indian culture (ethnocentrism).
The theme was to assimilate and civilize the First Nations.
The "Civilization of Indian Tribes Act" stated that if the Indians traded their aboriginal rights for the Canadian citizenship, then they're allowed to own properties, vote and serve as juries. And most saw this as a attempt to take control of their lands.
This act restricted the way Indians elect their leaders, the way they educated their children, and how their estates would be dealt after death.
The act also restricted the Indian's right to wear traditional clothes and the right to take part in traditional ceremony.
The Indian Act, 1876
The Royal Proclamation was considered a foundation for future treaty-making and the first step for the recognition on First Nation rights and titles.
It states that all native lands belong to the crown, but also recognizes the hunting and farming rights of the Natives.
The Western lands of Canada were reserved for the "several nations of tribes of Indian".
The First Nations claimed their tribal sovereignty through the proclamation.
We made treaties with Great Britain and the trust was given to the Canadian government to live up to our treaties. Ever since the first treaties, First Nations have felt the [Canadian] officials have not complied with those treaties.
- John Tootoosis, Poundmaker Cree Nation, 1947
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-term used to describe members of the aboriginal groups is North America
-the indigenous people of Canada
-supreme power and authority as claimed by a state
-a piece of land set apart for a special purpose
he belief that one's culture is superior to all others
-a group's culture is lost from pressure to join a more dominant culture
The government thought it would be best for the First Nations to learn English and adopt a modern lifestyle
The government created residential schools because they believed that children would be more likely to adopt the new lifestyles
Attendance was mandatory
The children lived in poor conditions, and were treated harshly
When the children came back home, many could not speak their native languages
"The residential schools were designed to eradicate any sense of Indian-ness. They denied us the opportunity to learn about ourselves."
— Phil Fontaine
"The great aim of our legislation has been to do away with the tribal system and assimilate the Indian people in all respects with the other inhabitants of the Dominion as speedily as they are fit to change.”
- John A Macdonald, 1887
I speak of a Canada where men and women of Aboriginal ancestry, of French and British heritage, of the diverse cultures of the world, demonstrate the will to share this land in peace, in justice, and with mutual respect.
- Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, April 17, 1982 at the proclamation ceremony for the constitution.
“And whereas it is just and reasonable, and essential to our interest, and the security of our colonies, that the several Nations or Tribes of Indians with whom we are connected, and who live under our protection, should not be disturbed in the possession of such parts of our dominions and territories as, not having been ceded to or purchased by us, are reserved to them, or any of them, as their hunting grounds.” –King George III
By: Jason Z and Tony Y