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How to Take a Perfect Picture

Design in Photography

Jessica Bradt

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of How to Take a Perfect Picture

Design in Photography The Principles Techniques for Good Composition How To Take The Perfect Picture Composition The amount of light allowed to fall on a photographic medium (film or image sensor) during the process of taking a photograph

Adjustment of the lens opening, measured as f-number - controls the amount of light passing through the lens

Aperture also has an effect on depth of field and diffraction

Adustment of the speed of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure A Brief History of Photography Camera Obscura (Pinhole Camera) The First Photograph 2 4 5 The first surviving mention of the principles behind the pinhole camera or camera obscura belongs to Mozi (Mo-Ti) (470 to 390 BCE), The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 to 322 BCE) understood the optical principle of the pinhole camera
Alhazen also gave the first clear description[7] and correct analysis[8] of the camera obscura and pinhole camera
a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000AD, invented the first pinhole camera 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic image with a camera obscura The arrangement of visual design elements according to the design principles in a work of art or photograph.

The term composition means 'putting together,' and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, that is arranged or put together using conscious thought. Know Your Camera Conclusion Utilizing the core concepts of compositional design in your photography, along with the knowledge of your equipment, will allow you to take perfect pictures Introduction "Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material. Contents Camera basics
The Elements
The Principles
Conclusion Many cameras these days have automatic settings that will balance these for you.
For more control, use the manual settings on your camera
Read light meter to select the appropriate shutter speed and aperture setting to create a nice exposure for the scene Exposure Aperture Shutter Speed The Elements Shape Color Line The various visual elements, known as elements of design, are the building blocks of an image

These elements in the overall design usually relate to each other and to the whole art work Texture Value Form Lines define and enclosed space
The path lines create enables the eye to move within the piece Areas defined by edges within the piece, geometric or organic Various values and intensities-used with value
Color can play a large role in the elements of design
Color theory providing a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combination. Surface qualities which translate into tactile illusions
May evoke emotions toward subject 3-dimensional length, width, or depth value Shading used to emphasize form
Utilized with color to create tints, tones, shades, and hues The principles of visual art are the rules, tools and/or guidelines used to organize the elements of design in an artwork. When design principles are successfully combined with the design elements they help to create an aesthetically pleasing or interesting image. Unity No individual element or subject is viewed as more important than the whole design. Balance Variety Movement Emphasis Proportion Pattern/Rhythm Pattern or rhythm is simply repeating an element.
This will cause the viewer’s eye to move around to each element and throughout the image Elements in a piece are equal from one side of the image to the other. A symmetrical image has perfect balance. Balance can also be achieved by asymmetry or radial arrangement. Variety consists of the differences in objects that add interest to an image The use of lines, colors, values, textures, forms and space to carry or direct the eye of the viewer from one part of the design or picture to other Highlight certain areas while lessening the importance of others The size of one part of artwork as compared to its other parts

Artists use proportion to show emphasis, distance and use of space, and balance Rule of Thirds Areas of interest should be placed in along lines/intersections of a frame divided into 3 equal columns and rows
Creates energy and tension
A simplification of the Golden Mean
a ratio of 1:1.618
the Parthenon is built using the Golden Mean The Rule of Odds If multiple subjects in image, utilize an odd number
Keeps movement throughout image and creates a more natural arrangement The Rule of Space Position empty space in front of moving subject, or in direction of subject's gaze
Adds the illustion of movement The Rule of Simplification De-cluttering an image will add emphasis to subject
Too many subjects will nullify any movement The Rule of Limited Focus Using a low f-stop, or computer aided post-processing will limit the depth of field (blurs background while subject remains in focus)
The adds emphasis to the subject Photography Terms enjoy! 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1839 The Daguerreotype
Daguerre improved upon process-reducing exposure time to less than 30 minutes and creating permanent images 1841 The Calotype
Negative to Postive Process
Henry Fox Talbot, an English botanist and mathematician, invented the first negative from which multiple postive prints were made 1856 Tintypes
Hamilton Smith invented the tintype- a photograph made using a thin sheet of iron to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image.
Tintypes could be developed in minutes and needed no drying time 1851 Wet Plate Negatives
Frederick Scott Archer, an English sculptor, invented the wet plate negative- glass coated with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative. However the photo had to be developed quickly afterward, necessitating a portable darkroom. 1879 Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras
In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a dried gelatin emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible. 1889 Flexible Roll Film
George Eastman invented film with a base that was flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman's, made the mass-produced box camera a reality. 1940s Color Photographs
Commercially viable color films were brought to the market. These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors in which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together to create an apparent color image. Polaroid or Instant Photos
Polaroid photography was invented by Edwin Herbert Land. Land was the American inventor and physicist whose one-step process for developing and printing photos created instant photography. The first Polaroid camera was sold to the public in November, 1948.

Disposable Camera
Fuji introduced the disposable camera in 1986. We call them disposables but the people who make these cameras want you to know that they're committed to recycling the parts, a message they've attempted to convey by calling their products "single-use cameras."
Digital Camera
In 1984, Canon demonstrated first digital electronic still camera. Shutter Speed Aperture Know Your Capabilities Examples Review
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