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All Grammar

Parts of Speech Subject + Predicate (independent clause/dependent clause) Run-ons and Framents
by

Eric Carroll

on 15 September 2016

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Transcript of All Grammar

Grammar
Parts of Speech
Names
Words that name:

Michigan, they, democracy, Lebron James, team, whom, myself, marmalade, hers, Brooklyn, person, United States
Words that report an act or state of being:

sleeps, slept, slipped, was tripped, is, has been, prefers, excel, sinning, having been augmented, cracked
Reports
Words that modify (clarify or limit) another word:

grey

day
;
speak
clearly
;
dirty little

secret
;
tired
but
happy

children
;
old
;
comfortable

sofa
;
softly
,
suddenly

vanish

away
.
Modifies
Connects
Words that connect other words:

George

and

Martha
;
tired

but

happy
;
kiss

of

death
;
news

from

ESPN
;
time

after
time
;
sing

like

Bieber
;
moon

over

Miami Beach
;
shoot

over

Shaq
Expresses
Words that express a feeling without serving any of the function just mentioned:

ouch; ahem; wee; my oh my; oh; rah; ugh; heh; bah; zounds; drat;
Noun
Definition: The name of a person place or thing

Examples:
Governor Dan Malloy

(Governor)
;
Oregon

(State)
;
Home Alone 3
(film)
;
freedom

(concept)
;
love

(concept)
;
Hartford Hospital

(hospital)
;
Buddhism

(religion)
;
Women
(Person)
Pronoun
Definition: A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

Examples: I, you, she, it, that, themselves, whoever, me, he, they, whatever, my, mine, ours
Verb
Definition: A verb is a word that reports and action or state of being and IS NECESSARY to make a statement.

Examples:
While

typing
,
Arnold

developed

a

maddening

itch.
Your blueprints

would have been looked over

if you

had spoken up
.
Excited

by the electronic game, the children

were

unwilling
to go

to supper
.
After

getting

home from the game, we

slept

all day outside in the rain.
Adjective
Definition: Words that modify NOUNS or PRONOUNS are called adjectives.


What one(s)?
that
cupcake
;
these

bikinis
; the
latter
letter;
alternate
Tuesdays
How many or how much?
two

baskets
,
several

headhunters
;
no

bananas
;
great

expectations
;
universal

darness
What Quality? What SORT of thing?
red

sails
;
hot

car
;
fat
chance
;
curious

cat
;
oval

office
Adverb
Preposition
Prepositions express relationships between other words, usually nouns, including relationships of time or space.

*Trick: to determine whether a word is a preposition is to place it before "the fence."

Examples:
from

the throat
of

the bird
in

the meadow
by

the pond
at

the edge
of
the farm

Common Prepositions:

across, after, at, as, before, between, by,
for, from, in, like, of, on, over, up
through, to, under, until, with
Conjunction
Definition: Conjunctions join single words or groups of words (clauses).
Interjection
Words that expresses a feeling or attitude:

Mmmmm
whew
yuck!
Identifying Nouns and Pronouns

For the first time in her life, Mary was seeing two boys at once. It involved extra laundry, an answer-ing machine, and dark solo trips in taxicabs, which, in Cleveland, had to be summoned by phone, but she recommended it in postcards to friends. She bought the ones with photos of the flats, of James Garfield's grave, or an Annunciation from the art holding up fingers and whispering -Lorrie Moore, "Two Boys"
Definition: Words that modify verbs, adjectives, or any other adverbs.


Adverbs tell how, where, when or to what degree:
The band stepped

lively.
(how)
Put the piano

here.
(where)
Maria writes

frequently.
(when)
We were

thoroughly

entertained.
(to what degree)

Adverbs of degree strengthen or weaken what they modify:
A

very

happy fan cheered
. (modifies adjective)
She spoke

too

fast
. (modifies adverb)
Coordinating Conjunction
"Matchmaking Conjunction"
"And"
"or"
"but"
"for"
"nor"
"so"
"yet"
FANBOYS
Subordinating Conjunction
"Linking Conjunction"
After Although as as if
because before if since
unless when while whenever
until in case where except that
Identifying Verbs

When I wake up, the other side of the bed is cold. My fingers stretch out, seeking Prim’s warmth but finding only the rough canvas cover of the mattress. She must have had bad dreams and climbed in with our mother. Of course, she did. This is the day of the reaping.

I prop myself up on one elbow. There’s enough light in the bedroom to see them. My little sister, Prim, curled up on her side, cocooned in my mother’s body, their cheeks pressed together. In sleep, my mother looks younger, still worn but not so beaten-down. Prim’s face is as fresh as a raindrop, as lovely as the primrose for which she was named. My mother was very beautiful once, too.
-Collins, "Hunger Games"
Identify (5) Adverbs and (5) Adjectives

Billy's third grade teacher was a hearty woman named Mrs. Dingdong. Mrs. Dingdong spoke loudly, and her booming voice could often be heard by students in surrounding buildings. Her student would later confess that they heard Mrs. Dingdong's booming voice in their dreams from for the rest of their lives.
"Billy!"Mrs. Ding dong boomed fondly. "You are almost the messiest boy ever born! Quickly put your paste and your scissors in your locker and stand quietly in line!"
Billy shook with fear when Mrs. Dingdong boomed at him. He understood well enough that she was only trying to educate him, but his ears were extremely sensitive and the reverberations of her voice lasted over the weekend."
Parts of a Sentence
Words
Phrases
Clauses
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Verb
Adverb
Interjection
Conjuction
Preposition
A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. A phrase DOES NOT HAVE A SUBJECT AND A VERB.
Prepositional Phrase
Verbal Phrase
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition, and ends with a noun.

Example (3):
"Because she was
in a snit
, lovely Wanda walked quickly
with a towel

to the beach
."
(Infinitive...Gerund...Participial)
Infinitive Phrase: When the preposition "to" is followed by a noun, it is a preposition phrase: "to the beach". When "to" is followed by a verb -"to run, to see, to feel"-it is an infinitive.

Example:
Wanda wanted
to leave
.(infinitive phrase acting as an adverb)
He works hard

to make money
. (infinitive phrase acting as an adverb, modifying work)
To read

is

to be transported

to another world
. ("to read" is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun (subject); "to be transported" is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun (object).


Gerund:A gerund is an -ing verb that acts as a noun.

Example:
Daydreaming

was her favorite pastime
.
Winning the lottery

is my only hope
.
She loved

eating pastries

and

staying up all night
.
Subject:
is the thing about which the rest of the sentence makes a statement
Predicate:
is the part of the sentence that is making a statement about the subject. The predicate MUST contain a verb or verb phrase (a collection of words) as its main element.
Simple Subject:
The poor old man / hobbled through the streets.

The tiny birds / twittered for their food.
VS.
Compound Subject:
Frankie and Johnny / were sweethearts.

The princess and her maid / ran to the castle.
Simple Predicate:
Compound Predicate
Several dirty dishes / were lying on the table.


Dogs / bark.
The frog / hopped and skipped after Isabelle


The princess / ran to the caste and fainted in her

father’s arms
VS.
Several dirty dishes / were lying on the table.


Dogs / bark.
The frog / hopped and skipped after Isabelle


The princess / ran to the caste and fainted in her

father’s arms
Sentence: A sentence must (there are exceptions) have an independent clause. It may also (and usually does) have attached dependent clauses and phrases.
Simple Sentence:
Compound Sentence:
VS.
Mary / loves Clarence.


[simple sentence; simple subject + simple predicate]
The king and the queen / summoned the royal frog catcher and explained the problem.

[simple sentence; compound subject + compound predicate]
Template: Independent clause + comma + coordinating conjunction + independent clause.

The toad / sat on the ground
, but
his friend / sat on the small stool.


Template: Independent clause + semicolon + independent clause.

The toad / sat on the ground
;
his friend / sat on the small stool.
Collective Nouns
family
committee
furniture
forest
-are singular
Proper Nouns
- are names of people, specific places, and particular groups and events.
Paris
Billy Bob
Central Intelligence Agency
the War of the Roses
Common Nouns
time
postcards
love
strength
Subject
Predicate
Single = Single Plural = Plural

A single subject takes a single verb; a plural subject talks a plural verb
-The alumnae were whooping it up at their tenth reunion.
(plural alumnae, plural verb were)

-During the Tawana Brawley case, the media were out of control.
(Plural media, plural verb were)
Naming a verb:



-Swimming / is very relaxing.

-Skiing / is Wanda’s favorite sport.
Wanda’s favorite sport is a thing, a noun, so even though skiing can be used as a verb, in this case, skiing is acting as a noun.

-On Wednesday Wanda went / to Wichita to wait for Wilbur.

-To know me / is to love me.
To know is the infinitive form of the verb acting as a noun
Often, a word (or group of words) that looks like a verb acts as a noun. (It is the subject of the verb.)
Tenses:
The tense of a verb places the action at a particular time. English has twelve tenses all together. The six basic tenses are:

Why do editors cringe when they see an adverb? Adverbs are red flags, they replace concrete descriptions or phrases with words that don’t hold real meaning. Let’s take a look:

Adverb-y writing:
She badly needed a smoke. Slowly she peeked around the wall of her cubicle. Seeing no one, she quietly left the room.We can do better than that.

Using visuals instead of adverbs:
She needed a smoke bad enough that her hands shook. She stood on her toes to peek over the edge of her cubicle, no one was in the corridor. Carlton’s in hand, she slid off her high-heels and padded to the exit.
7th Grade
Group
Warm-up
Member
Member
Member
Member
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
copy paste branches if you need more....
June 3rd, 2012
Goal:
Homework:
- To examine the independent clause and review the parts of speech.
Use three of the vocab words to create a short narrative about a particular moment of excitment in their life.
-The story should be no less than eight (8)
sentences long and spark the readers attention.

-Vocab words should flow in the story. They
should not feel forced.
- Read and complete run-on and
fragment prep-packet.
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
Adverb Clause
Adjective Clause
Noun Clause
When a subordinating clause modifies a noun or pronoun it is called a adjective clause.

The song that I heard on the radio brought back many memories.

The horse that Danny owns is a well-trained Tennessee walking horse.

I finally saw the TV series that you recommended.
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that acts as a noun.

Whoever sat in that chair broke it.
Our choice will have to be whatever is the least expensive.
I pay attention to what the teacher says.
Prom Eve is when the king and queen will be announced.
What?
Active and Passive Voice
Active Voice:

In an active sentence, the SUBJECT performs the action, and the OBJECT receives it.

"The sausage seller bit the hot dog vender"

Passive Voice:

"The hot dog vendor was bitten by the sausage seller."
How to detect and correct passive voice:
Three Clues:

1. A form of the verb "to be" (am, is, are, was, were, be)



*2. A past participle (a past-tense form of a verb; for example, convicted or stolen.)



3. The word by. This element is absent if the performer of the action is implied, unknown, or omitted.
Examples:

Passive:
"The writing book that covered passive voice was chewed up by the active police dog."

Active:
"The active police dog chewed up the writing book that covered passive voice."
Why you should avoid passive voice?
1. Passive voice allows you to omit the subject (who is doing the action)

"The rich
were stolen from
the poor
given to
."

Correction: "Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor."

2. Passive voice forces you to use lots of weak "to be" verbs.

"Someone who looked like the suspect was rounded up, but he
was released
after his alibi
was checked out
."

3. Passive voice is wordy.

"The officer who had starred in a movie about dancing detectives became incensed when it
was criticized by
the local paper."

Correction: "The officer who had starred in a movie about dancing detectives became incensed when the local paper criticized it."
The Tantalizing Tale of Passive Voice

The pile of case files was carefully laid out as Detective Pinkersolve decided which one should be tackled first.
A puzzling caper at the local museum of modern art needed to be solved quickly, so the facts were examined by her. Last night, everything was being prepared for opening day of the much-anticipated exhibition of self-portraits. It was discovered by the cleaning crew that one painting had been defaced. When the crime scene was studied closely by the detective, it was revealed that a portrait of a man had been scribbled on with red crayon. It was decided a visit needed to be paid to the man whose self-portrait had been given a mustache.
When the artist was interviewed, it was noted that his scruffy red mustache was the same as the one depicted by the self-portrait. When confronted, the artist explained that his painting had not been ready at the deadline, so the museum had been snuck into and some last-minute touches added. Although an apology was issued and a fine paid, bad press could not be avoided. Artistic success was never achieved, so career options were evaluated. A few ideas were suggested and the case file closed.
Goal: To examine commas and how they are used in writing.
Homework:Find and fix run-ons, fragments and comma errors.
Vocab Quiz
Please put everything off your desk!
June 6th, 2012
Transitive Verb
Look at these sentences.

He
met
her yesterday.
She
wrote
a story last year.
Rust
destroys
iron.

In these sentences, the verbs are the words met, wrote and destroys. In each sentence, if you ask the question: 'met whom/what?' - you will get the answers as follows:

sentence 1 question: met whom? answer: her
sentence 2 question: wrote what? answer: story
sentence 3 question: destroys what? answer: iron

(Note that we use whom in the questions for human beings and what for things and also for animals.)

The words her, story and iron in the sentences above are called objects in grammar.

A transitive verb is, therefore, a verb which has an object.
It is a verb which is not transitive verb which does not take an object.

Here are some examples along with some sentences...

walk, jump, sleep, sit, lie, stand, weep, kneel, fall, fly, flow, remain, die, belong, wait, come, go.

We
walk
to the railway station.
The children
jump
with joy.
Babies
sleep
for many hours.
My brother
stood
there.
Jesus
wept.
VS.
Intransitive Verb
Goal: To ace the quiz, and review parts of speech.
Homework:
Complete packet on Prepositional Phrases and Conjunctions.
Quiz Time:
Please take everything off your desk and sit quietly
Fragments:
Sentence Fragments
and Run-ons
Run-ons
A sentence fragment is a word group that cannot stand alone as a sentence but is
punctuated as if it were a sentence.
Which statements are fragments?

1. He went to the conference.

2. When he went to the conference.

3. When he went to the conference, he met with training officers from many Government agencies.

4. As mentioned in the preceding letter.
How to fix a fragment:

Combine the fragment with a related independent clause.

Rewrite the fragment so that it contains an independent clause.

You try!

"We agree with your goals. Although we do not agree with your methods."

"We would be glad to help you solve the problem.
If you would send us a letter describing your current accounting procedures."

"In response to your letter of May 6 concerning our hiring policies."
A run-on sentence consists of
two
or
more
sentences (
independent clauses
)that run together

without a period or a semicolon
.
Here are some examples of run-on sentences:

The ship was enormous, its mast was almost 40 feet high.
The moon moved in front of the sun the eclipse began.
1. Make the two independent clauses into separate sentences.

2. Insert a comma and a coordinating conjunction after the first independent
clause (IC).

3. Insert a semicolon between the two independent clauses.

4. Change one independent clause to a dependent clause.

5. Insert a semicolon after the first independent clause, a conjunctive adverb between the two independent clauses, and a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

6. Change one of the two independent clauses to a phrase.
Questions for Most Kings
1. What is the main message of this song?

2. Where does Jay-Z use run-ons and fragments? (Underline)

3. How do the run-ons and fragments add or take away from the quality of the piece?
Diagramming a Sentence 101
Cross out Adj and Adv
Finished
Cross out Prepositional
Phrases
Spark
Find Complete Subject and Verb
Original Sentence
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Examples:
The green building is one of the oldest here.

Architecture is considered a form of art.

Mesopotamians used clay bricks in ziggurats at Uruk.
The green building is one of the oldest here.

Architecture is considered a form of art.

Mesopotamians used clay bricks in ziggurats at Uruk.
Example
The green building is one of the oldest here.

Architecture is considered a form of art.

Mesopotamians used clay bricks in ziggurats at Uruk.
The
green
building is one
of the oldest here
.

Architecture is considered a form
of art
.

Mesopotamians used
clay
bricks
in ziggurats at Uruk
.
1. Use a comma to separate two independent clauses connected by "and, but, or, nor, for.

2.
. Direct objects can be nouns, pronouns, phrases, or clauses.

If you can identify the subject and verb in a sentence, then finding the direct object, if one exists, is easy. Just remember this simple formula:
+ + what? or who? = direct object
The Direct Object
Subject
Verb
The Subject Compliment
Recognize a subject complement when you see one.

A subject complement is the adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a .

True linking verbs:

any form of the verb be
am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, etc.
become
seem

Other Possible Linking Verbs

appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, and turn.

If you can substitute any of the verbs on this second list with an equal sign [=] and the sentence still makes sense, the verb is almost always linking.
linking verb
VS.
Active Verbs
Linking Verbs
Indirect Object
When someone or something gets the direct object... its the Indirect Object.
End-of-Sentence Punctuation:
Punctuation:
Period
Periods:
Did you know periods are called "full-stops" in England? BET NOT!

Complete a full-thought (most times)


To build suspense, writers slow down the pace of the story. The best way to do this is with a series of short sentences.
Why we should study periods.
"Fourth quarter. Three minutes left. Nease High just went up 21-17 on Robert Marve and the boys from Plant.
Complete pass. Again. Clock's ticking. Again. Down the field they go. The kid can't miss. The panthers are nearing the end zone... The whole place is on its feet. Ball's on the 5-yard line. Marve takes the snap. Drops back. Throws."
Yea, you wish you knew what happens!
In Review:

The more periods, the more steps, and the slower the pace of the work for the reader.

Why would you want to set a slow pace?

To create Suspense; to keep the reader hanging (Oh, by the way, Plant High School won the big game.)
To explain step by step
To magnify an emotion.
Writers can also use a series of short sentences to magnify an emotion.
This author wants to capture the feeling of despair as a victim of rape realizes her attacker now lives opennly in her town.
"Maybe I shouldn't have been surprised. I knew he stayed in the area. But it still shocked me to see his photo. He was marrying a younger women, one with a child, according to the article."
Now you try!

Image a moment of suspense or emotional terror and capture it using periods and short sentences. (You can make it up)
Question Mark
Yay?...
The question is the engine of debates and interrogations, of mysteries solved and secrets to be revealed, of conversations between students and teacher, and anticipation and explanation.


A good question, when used correctly can topple ignorance and lighten souls.


For the reader and writer, it is the great question that gives energy to a narrative.
The best interview questions are open ended, which means the interviewer does not know the answer in advance.

In narratives, questions often imagine another person, inviting a response or a continuing conversation.

The best stories are formed around a question that the story answers for the reader.
Harry Potter:
Who will live?
Who will die?
Is Headmaster Dumbledore really dead?
Is professor Snape good or bad?
Will Ron and Hermione ever hook up?
Now your turn!

Scenario One:
You can ask anyone one question. They can't lie. Who and what do you ask?


Scenario Two:
You are writing a novel. Whats the question everyone is going to want to know?
Exclamation Point
RANDOM! If you want to be considered a serious writer, never, ever use emoticons in e-mail messages. The occasional exclamation is fine. ;-)


If you are tempted to use an exclamation point, read the passage aloud. If the content contains excitement or emotional intensity, perhaps you don't need the exclaimer.

The more the serious the story, the fewer you should find.


The less serious the story, the more liberty you can take with!!!!!

The most practical use of exclaimers is after a quotation or a bit of dialogue that expresses intense emotion.
"The Russians are coming!"
"The Text Point"
You try!

Alright, my mind is on emoticons. Who knows some good ones?
Warm-up
9th Grade
Goal:
Homework:
-To examine active and passive voice in writing.
.
-Correct passive voice in "Mistake" essay.
Warm-up
7th Grade
Goal:
Homework:
- To distinguish and play with the four sentence types.
-Using all four sentence types, write a paragraph describing you favorite activity/sport.
Warm-up
8th Grade
Goal:
Homework:
Examining Run-ons and Fragments in writing.
Refute or Defend the statement: "rap is literature". Use 3 or more vocab words to do so.
Dear John:
I want a man who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we're apart. I can be forever happy--will you let me be yours?
Jane
Dear John:
I want a man who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people, who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other men, I yearn. For you, I have no feelings whatsoever. When we're apart, I can be forever happy. Will you let me be?
Yours,
Jane
Grammar Games:

Step One: Find the main subjects in the following sentence.

1. My best friend in the whole world is coming over to my house to visit me
this afternoon.
2. Three beautiful little kittens looked up at me from inside a box of old
clothes.
3. At the stroke of midnight, the carriage turned into a huge orange pumpkin.
4. A really friendly old man with long white whiskers lives in the apartment
above my aunt’s and uncle’s apartment.
5. Several of her favorite romantic love songs were playing on the radio that
afternoon in the park.


Step Two: Everyone in your group does 10 jump-in-jacks



6. Cool, deep, dark blue water flowed through the rough limestone rocks in
the gorge.
7. One-hundred fifty-five dollars is certainly a lot of money for a young
person living with his or her parents.
8. The large red book sitting on the hall table was a dictionary published by
an encyclopedia company in the United States.
9. The three girls carried back packs filled with books, food, candy, clothes,
make-up, pens, paper, hairbrushes, and other assorted items.
10. I don’t remember the name of that tall, thin actor with the sparkling blue
eyes.
Stage One: Find all the main subjects for questions 1-5
Stage Two: Do 10 jumping-jacks


Stage Three: Find all the verbs (main+aux) in sentences 6-10


Stage Four: Do three push-ups!
Holding the puppy inside her coat, Virginia waited to surprise her young cousins.
Simple or Compound?:
My dog has three legs.
Six of the men with beards wore only one shoe.
That single weapon could inflict more damage than all our explosives.
During the entire semester Professor Johnson looked up from his notes and smiled at the class on only two occasions.
The king summoned each of his servants, but he didn't threaten them at all.
Complex and Compound-Complex:
Whenever they eat at this restaurant, they order a hamburger and fries.
If Barack Obama is the nominee for the Democratic Party, he'll run against John McCain, but it won't be an easy contest to win.
Even though he prefers to eat with a fork, he chooses to use chopsticks in Chinese restaurants; however, they aren't easy to use.
Run-on and Fragments
Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges, however, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

This computer doesn't make sense to me, it came without a manual.

Most of those computers in the Learning Assistance Center are broken already, this proves my point about American computer manufacturers.

In Japan, during the last war and just before the armistice.

Working far into the night in an effort to salvage her little boat.

Some of the students working in Professor Espinoza's laboratory last semester.

Even though he had the better arguments and was by far the more powerful speaker.

Judy leads a charmed life she never seems to have a serious accident.

The airport is about to shut down because of the snow and if the plane doesn't land soon it will have to go on to Boston.

Verb
The boy kicked the ball.
We drank water.
They sent him a letter.
The dog is a mongrel.
I am he
The chlorine in the pool smelled harsh
A horse’s staggering gait can be a sign of swamp fever.
Grammar Games Quiz
The chlorine in the pool smelled harsh.
"Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!"
The class gift will be a new set of curtains for the auditorium stage
We tell ourselves stories in order to live.
"You can't test courage cautiously."
The moon looked close enough to touch.
The police have arrested the man who committed the robberies.
Work on raps
Imagine for a second you are the electrical company. A customer has failed to pay his/her monthly bill, and you must inform them that you are shutting off their electricity. Write a letter in which you tell them this.

How many vocab words can you use?
Make note-cards for this weeks vocab.

Notecards should include one or more the following things:

Definition
Example Sentence
Image
Phonetic Spelling

1. In the woods the rain came down in torrents.

2. Jim will be waiting for you at the mall.

3. The reckless driver hit the deer and swerved into another car.

4. The policeman stopped to help and saved the man's life.

5. The men and women stopped and helped the lame horse and its rider.
Reason for fragment:
1. NO independent clause (complete thought)

2. Confused dependent clause for independent.

Ex. Because I want to see you during class.

3. You only have a phrase

Ex. During the game yesterday.
Running down the street.
The President of the yo-yo club.
Words
Phrases
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Verb
Adverb
Interjection
Conjuction
Preposition
A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. A phrase generally DOES NOT HAVE A SUBJECT AND A VERB and NEVER completes a thought.
Prepositional Phrase
Verbal Phrase
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition, and ends with a noun.

Example (3):
"Because she was
in a snit
, lovely Wanda walked quickly
with a towel

to the beach
."
(Infinitive...Gerund...Participial)
Infinitive Phrase: When the preposition "to" is followed by a noun, it is a preposition phrase: "to the beach". When "to" is followed by a verb -"to run, to see, to feel"-it is an infinitive.

Example:
Wanda wanted
to leave
.(infinitive phrase acting as an adverb)
He works hard

to make money
. (infinitive phrase acting as an adverb, modifying work)
To read

is

to be transported

to another world
. ("to read" is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun (subject); "to be transported" is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun (object).


Gerund:A gerund is an -ing verb that acts as a noun.

Example:
Daydreaming

was her favorite pastime
.
Winning the lottery

is my only hope
.
She loved

eating pastries

and

staying up all night
.
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
Adverb Clause
Adjective Clause
Noun Clause
When a subordinating clause modifies a noun or pronoun it is called a adjective clause.

The song that I heard on the radio brought back many memories.

The horse that Danny owns is a well-trained Tennessee walking horse.

I finally saw the TV series that you recommended.
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that acts as a noun.

Whoever sat in that chair broke it.
Our choice will have to be whatever is the least expensive.
I pay attention to what the teacher says.
Prom Eve is when the king and queen will be announced.
Ex. During the game
Running down the stairs
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