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Iceman Study Guide
Transcript of Iceman Study Guide
DEATH>>>> 12. When did Iceman live and die? What tests were performed to establish his dates?
13. Why are his dates 'controversial'?
14. Outline the various theories about Iceman's death. Begin with the disaster theory.
15. When was the arrow head found in Iceman? Where was it located in his body and outline the theories about how it contributed to his death?
16. What blood tests revealed about Iceman's last hours?
17. Iceman's last meal. What was found in his stomach and what does this tell us about Iceman's journey and way of life?
18. What does Iceman's DNA tell us? 1. When was Iceman found?
September, 1991 2. Where was he found? What problems did this cause between two countries? How was the issue resolved?
3. Where was body taken after he was found?
4. Where is Iceman's body today?
5. Who found him? How did they find him?
6. Why was his body still intact?
7. Comment on the removal of his body and goods from the site.
8. What were the controversies surrounding Iceman's discovery?
9. Comment on Iceman's clothes.
10. List Iceman's equipment. Choose one item and give a detailed description.
11. Who was Spindler? The ice glacier which preserved Iceman, formed over him and protected him from the river's force. A jackhammer was used to remove Iceman from the ice. Iceman was lifted by his arms and legs from the site.
The goods weren't guarded and found a week after Iceman's discovery. * which country iceman belonged to. The Austrian (cursed and dead) who excavated Iceman. Iceman was found approximatley 3 metres into Italy. He found on the border og Austria and Italy. The issue was resolved by Austria allowing Italy to keep the body Innsbruck - Austria Belsano - Italy 2 German hikers Iceman had special shoes and leggings Was Iceman a trader, a copper worker, cursed? Theory 2: Ötzi Was Injured in a Fight or a Fall Before He Froze to Death
Early x-rays (done in Innsbruck) appeared to show broken ribs on his right side. This caused endless speculation about his death: Were these fractured ribs the result of a fight or a fall shortly before his death? Could this fight or fall have led to his death? Or did he receive the broken ribs after he died? Konrad Spindler wrote about this theory in quite dramatic fashion in The Man in the Ice and Human Mummies.
Theory 2: Re-examined. The second theory suffered a set back, though when the new x-rays did not show any sign of broken ribs (though it is possible that the broken ribs did not show up as sometimes happens). The Italian radiology team believes that the original x-rays merely show the results of (1) compression (snow and ice pressing against the Iceman's ribcage) and (2) a misreading of the original x-ray (two ribs are overlapping, which can give the appearance of a fracture when none is actually there).
Even if there are no broken ribs, the Iceman showed obvious signs of a fight of some kind.
Other theories were proposed:
Theory 4: Ötzi was a victim of homicide
Again, according to Fowler, Dr. Markus Egg (Romano-Germanic Central Museum) offered the theory that Ötzi was a shepherd who was killed by another shepherd who wanted a larger flock of animals. Dr. Eduard Egarter Vigl proposed other possibilities: a returning herdsman, he arrived home as his village was being attacked, or he arrived home to find that "another man had taken his wife during his absence" (Smithsonian).
A study published in early 2009 suggested that the Iceman was injured in a brawl (the deep gash in his hand) a few days before he was killed by the arrow. They theorize that he fled from his village in a hurry--as shown by his unfinished arrows
Theory 4: Accepted. No one doubts that the Iceman was a victim of homicide at this point. The evidence for injuries received a few days apart also seems convincing. The remaining issues are the motive and the circumstances, and both remain unclear.
Theory 5: Ötzi was a victim of attempted robbery and devised an unsuccessful plan (the Lizard Tail Gambit) to ensnare his assailant
Petr Jandácek suggests that the Iceman was the victim of attempted robbery. Someone wanted his copper axe. Ötzi fought him off, injuring his hand in a knife fight. As he retreated up the mountain, the robber shot him in the shoulder with an arrow and followed him.
According to Jandácek, Ötzi planned a strategy to save himself. Using something like the Lizard Tail Gambit (a chess strategy, in which a pawn or two are sacrificed to achieve a better position), the Iceman placed his belongings (his backpack, bow, and his highly desirable ax) on top of some rocks; he positioned his quiver on the ground a few feet away. Ötzi took only his dagger and his container of hot coals. He covered himself in a snowdrift, using a peephole to watch for his attacker. He placed his left arm under his chin and his right arm straight at his side, his right hand grasping a dagger in self defense, in case the gambit failed. The snowfall was heavy, however, and the attacker gave up. Ötzi waited, until perhaps he fell asleep and froze to death, protected from predators by the snowdrift he had used for cover. But these theories were superceded by another.
Theory 5: A possibility. This is as good a theory as any. Unfortunately, there is no way to prove it.
Theory 6: Ötzi was a victim of a power play
According to Walter Leitner of the Institute for Ancient and Early History at the University of Innsbruck in Austria, Ötzi may well have been a shaman and a highly respected member of his group. In a power play, another group of individuals wanted to assume that power--what better way than killing the Iceman. Leitner believes Ötzi was a shaman because of the possessions he had with him, in particular the copper axe which was not a common object.
Leitner also believes that the attackers kept at a distance during their attack, perhaps because they were afraid of the shaman and what he might do. When Ötzi was wounded, he may have tried to descend the mountain but was overcome (Leitner believes that it makes sense for Ötzi to have tried to go down the mountain, once he was wounded, rather than up to a higher position). By killing him in the mountains, well out of sight, his attackers may have hoped that his death (or disappearance) was seen as an accident. Perhaps that is why his tools and weapons were left with the body. had they taken them, others who knew them would have wondered why they had these items.
Theory 6: A possibility. This, too, has possibilities, and is a variation of Theory 4. Could the Iceman have been a shaman (a recent study suggests that he was a herdsman)? Evidence suggests that he was attacked by multiple assailants. But why? This theory offers a possibility.
Theory 7: Ötzi was placed on a burial platform
According to a scientific team of researchers headed by Alessandro Vanzetti (Sapienza University of Rome), Ötzi was killed at a lower altitude, carried up the mountain, and placed on a burial platform of stones. This platform was some 20 feet uphill from the place where Ötzi's body was found in 1991. Vanzetti's team concluded that over the centuries, as the ice of the glacier occasionally thawed, his body was carried downhill in the melting water and came to rest where it was eventually found. Vanzetti and his team reached this conclusion by reanalyzing the distribution of the artifacts in and around the Iceman's findspot.
However, while other scientists agree that the Iceman's body was repositioned slightly during warmer spells, they do not believe that he died elsewhere or that the stones formed a burial platform. According to biological anthropologist Albert Zink, head of the EURAC Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, as reported on sciencenews.org, "Ötzi probably died in the mountains alone and close to where he suffered a fatal injury.... The Iceman’s joints and spine display no dislocations that would have resulted from a downhill slide. Intact blood clots in his arrow wound would show damage if the body had been carted up the mountain...."
Vanzetti's team believes that the artifacts found on the melting glacier would have been randomly distributed. Instead, when the artifacts were plotted on a map (see above), they tended to cluster in two places: near the platform and near the findspot. As the authors conclude: "A careful study of all the located grave goods...points strongly towards the scene as one of a ceremonial burial, subsequently dispersed by thawing and gravity. The whole assemblage thus takes on another aspect – not a casual tragedy but a mortuary statement of its day."
Could Ötzi have been buried on the mountain? Right now, this remains another theory.
Death Trader Theory Copper Worker Cursed Since Otzi was travelling along an anienct trade route and wasn't from the area he was found in, it seemed logical to assume he was a trader.
The Alps were a common bartering area during the prehistoric times. Trading such as hunting, mining and high-altitude grazing produced goods such as: flint, jade, shells and copper. (Iceman had these objects on him). The origin of his flint, the typology of his axe blade, the types of wood used in his equipment and the pollen in his digestive tract all indicate that Ötzi must have lived somewhere south of the Alpine mountain chain.
Analysis of the isotopic composition of Ötzi’s tooth enamel and bones provides even more precise information. Humans absorb various isotopes (variants of the same chemical element) with their food, which are then stored in the body. The result is that the isotopic composition of human remains depends on the geological area. Otzi's clothes showed that he was likely to be a herdsman (hair samples showed that sheep and cattle materials made his leggings and shoes) Iceman was believed to be a copper worker because of the two foot long axe he carried. It was made from the trunk of a yew tree and a copper blade (a rare item of the time, historians had to reconsider when the Copper Age actually started).
A reconstruction of the axe proved that in 45 minutes it was possible to chop a yew tree even though three swings equaled one swing from a modern axe. Theories about Iceman Body of a copper worker This is an axe! Thankyou DNA THEORIES ARE NOT ALWAYS CORRECT! Ooo spooky... Seven people who were involved with Iceman and/or his discovery have died.
1. Rainer Henn, 64, Forensic pathologist. Placed Icemans body into bodybag with bare hands. Killed by vehicle on the way to a conference about Iceman.
2.Kurt Fritz, 52, Mountain guide. Led Dr Henn to Otzi's body. Killed by an avalanche.
3. RainerHölz, 47, Filmmaker. Made a documentary about the recovery of Iceman. Died by brain tumor.
4. Helmut Simon, 69, Mountain hiker. Discovered Iceman's body. Fell 300 feet on Austria's Gaiskarkogel peak and died.
5. Dieter Warnecke, 45, Head of rescue team (looking for Simon). Heart attack hours after Simons funeral.
6.Konrad Spindler, 66, Head of scientific team on Iceman. Died from multiple sclerosis.
7. Ton Loy, 64, Melcular archeologist. Discovered blood on Otzi's weapons and clothing. Died from hereditary blood disease (first diagnosed when began working on Iceman). So many theories.... Check List! 1. Otzi froze to death peacefully.
2. Otzi was injured in a fight or fall before he froze.
3. Otzi was accidentally shot.
4. Otzi was a victim of homocide.
5. Otzi was a victim of attempted robbery and tried to catch his assailant.
6. Otzi was a victim of a power play.
7. Otzi was placed on a burial platform. Possible Wrong Found wounds with X-ray Other injuries proved theory wrong. Information straight from: http://www.mummytombs.com/otzi/theories.htm Gotta love the Internet Poor penguin Omg Otzi's alive!
Wait thats just a statue... Iceman Study Guide By: Rebecca G, Rebecca S, Suraya A and Alisa L Study of Ötzi's Colon (10/23/01)
Researchers at the University of Glasgow found whipworm parasite eggs in the Iceman's colon. This means that Ötzi had a fairly severe intestinal disorder which would have caused diarrhea or possibly dysentery. Barley, meat, and a cereal grain known as einkorn were also found; these would have comprised his last meal or meals.
Perhaps the most important finding was pollen, ingested when he drank water from local streams. These pollens indicate that he may well have died in late spring or even early summer, not in the fall (as some researchers had suspected).
Study of Ötzi's Last Meal (9/17/02)
Scientists at the University of Camerino in Italy analyzed the preserved contents of Ötzi's intestines. They found that he had eaten two meals:
>Ötzi first ate the meat of an ibex (wild goat; Capra ibex) along with some cereal grains (and pollen).
>The pollen found in his intestines indicates that he hiked through "a coniferous forest at mid-elevation." This is most likely the site where he ate his ibex meal.
>At a higher altitude he ate another meal: red deer (Cervus elaphus) and more grain.
Study of the Mosses in Ötzi's Intestines (12/1/08)
Professor James Dickson from the University of Glasgow and other scientists studied the mosses found in the Iceman's intestines. Altogether they located 36 samples of six different mosses in five areas of his intestinal tract (the ileum, three areas of the colon, and the rectum); researchers concluded that all of the mosses were apparently accidentally ingested.
Four of the six mosses are particularly important, according to the researchers, in terms of understanding the last days of Ötzi's life. The four important mosses are:
Neckera complanata. (21/36 samples) This fan moss was found in every sample analyzed by the researchers, leading them to believe that it was used to wrap his food. According to their interpretation, the moss was too prevalent to have been ingested with drinking water. Therefore, they believe that it was used to wrap at least three of Ötzi's final meals.
Anomodon viticulosus. (3/36 samples) This rough mat moss was most likely picked up by the Iceman as he collected the Nekera, since they often grow side by side on rocks.
Hymenostylium recurvirostrum. (8/36 samples) This tall turf and large cushion moss was most likely ingested with some water as he drank from a stream. Since all eight samples were found only in the Iceman's rectum (and since this moss is not located in the area where the body was found), researchers believe that he ingested the moss with some drinking water at least a day before he died, at a lower altitude.
Sphagnum imbricatum. (1/36 sample) Most likely used to dress a wound (his hand, perhaps) and then ingested accidentally (and microscopically) when he ate one of his last meals (Dickson suggests that the moss could have stuck to dried blood from the wound on Ötzi's hand), this moss is found in bogs. Today no bogs can be found within thirty miles of the Iceman's findspot, leading researchers to conclude that he must have covered a lot of ground in his travels. Dickson et al write: "If this is true then the implication is that either or both of the wounds happened at low to only moderate altitude but not in lower Schnalstal where no species of bogmoss is known."
The first study: Researchers were able to analyze a segment of Ötzi’s mitochondrial DNA in this study.
They determined that he belonged to the genetic group (called a haplogroup by DNA researchers) known as K, a group to which about 8 percent of modern Europeans belong. The K haplogroup has two lineages or sub-groups (called subhaplogroups) identified as K-1 and K-2. Researchers in the early study also determined that the Iceman belonged to the K-1 subhaplogroup.
This finding suggested that many people (who share the K-1 subhaplogroup) shared a common female ancestor with Ötzi.
The second study (2008): The new study, according to biologist Franco Rollo of the University of Camerino, Italy, provides "the oldest complete human mitochondrial DNA sequence generated to date."
In this study, researchers retrieved a complete version of Ötzi’s mitochondrial DNA. Although they, too, found that Ötzi belonged to the K-1 subhaplogroup, the analysis went further. The K-1 subhaplogroup has three branches or clusters (K1a, K1b, and K1c--all found in the modern European population). The new study revealed that Ötzi belonged to a previously unidentified cluster (now called K1ö, for Ötzi).
According to researchers Rollo, as quoted on medicalnewstoday.com, "This doesn't simply mean that Ötzi had some 'personal' mutations making him different from the others but that, in the past, there was a group - a branch of the phylogenetic tree - of men and women sharing the same mitochondrial DNA. Apparently, this genetic group is no longer present. We don't know whether it is extinct or it has become extremely rare." Another researcher, Martin Richards, a professor of biology at the University of Leeds in northern England, added, "Our research suggests that Ötzi's lineage may indeed have become extinct."
What this means: In short, the study found that Ötzi belongs to a branch of a mtDNA line that has not yet been identified in modern Europeans.
Researchers are careful to point out that, if a larger number of modern Europeans are genetically tested, especially those who live in the alpine areas where the Iceman once roamed, it is still possible that living members of the K1ö cluster can be found.
Trying to add a bit of hope, researcher Rollo, in an email to Genomeweb.com, said, “At the present state of knowledge no one can claim to be the descendant of Ötzi but, who knows, perhaps in a lonely Alpine valley....”
that Ötzi's birthplace was in an area near the present day Italian village of Feldthurns (10/31/03).
An article entitled "Iceman's Origins and Wanderings," published in Science, presents the results of a scientific study in which the minerals found in Ötzi's teeth, bones, and intestines were compared to those found in soil and water samples taken from a wide area of the Tyrolean Alps.
The findings suggest that Ötzi was most likely born in Italian village of Feldthurns (also called Velturno; it is north of present-day Bolzano on the A22). However, the results also indicate that he lived most of his life in other northern valleys. The scientists deduced this by comparing the minerals in his tooth enamel with those in his bones. They also analyzed bits of mica found in his intestines (most likely these bits came from stones containing mica that were used to grind grain that the Iceman ate).
The overall picture that emerged was that the Iceman didn't roam more than about 37 miles (or 60 kilometers) from his birthplace.
Dr. Wolfgang Müller, the lead author of the study, from the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University in Canberra explained: "From the enamel it is possible to reconstruct the composition of the water Ötzi drank and get clues about the earth where his food was grown. As a result we now know Ötzi came from near to where he was found from the Eisack Valley [near Feldthurns]. He spent his childhood there. And he spent his adulthood in Lower Vinschgau [also in the Italian Tyrol]."
Dr. Müller also concluded that Ötzi was not a world traveler (he hadn't hiked all over Europe) and hadn't spent extensive time at higher elevations.
According to the BBC News Online, Dr. Alexander Halliday of the Department of Earth Sciences at RTH Zurich told BBC News Online: "This is the first time that anyone has made a comprehensive study of the migration of a human in the past. It looks like he lived much of his life in a different valley from where he was born."
This means that the Iceman was an early "pre-Italian" to anyone keeping score.
Ötzi the Iceman was found near Hauslabjoch in the Ötzal Alps See Theories on Iceman Theory 1: Discarded. The first theory was put to rest in June 2001 when the Iceman was x-rayed by a different team of scientists (in Bolzano). They discovered that he had an arrowhead buried in his left shoulder. In June 2002, they also discovered that the Iceman had a fairly debilitating wound to one hand.
DNA Tests Suggest: Ötzi Died After Violent Fight But Not Alone (8/10/03):
Results of recent DNA tests conducted by an Australian researcher have led to all sorts of new speculation about Ötzi's final days. Like crime scene investigators, molecular biologist Thomas Loy and his team (from the University of Queensland's Institute of Molecular Bioscience in Brisbane) looked for blood traces on the Iceman, his tools, and weapons. During their investigation, they saw further signs of trauma to Ötzi's body, including bruises (and cuts) on his abdomen (especially on his rib area), which (they concluded) indicates that he may have been beaten. They found DNA from four different people other than the Iceman, and they carried out each test twice to be certain of their findings.
Dr. Loy told a reporter from USA Today, "We have been working round the clock for the last three weeks to get these results. It was very exciting when the blood samples came back positive for human DNA from four separate individuals."
Specifically, they took samples from the Iceman's antler-skinning tool, his stone-tipped knife, two of his arrows (one broken), his axe handle, and his goatskin coat. Using techniques devised especially for ancient DNA, the team found four different DNA sequences: one on the knife blade, two different sequences on one arrow, and a fourth on Ötzi's goatskin coat. (They also found a small tear in the coat which may have been the entry point of the arrowhead that was found embedded in his shoulder.)
They have interpreted these findings in this way:
1. The two different blood samples on the arrow may indicate that Ötzi killed two of his assailants and retrieved the arrow to use again.
2. The blood on his coat may indicate that Ötzi carried a wounded friend on his shoulder for some distance.
Dr. Loy told news.com.au: "On the basis of all my examinations, [Ötzi's] specialty was hunting the high alpine passes for ibex and possibly chamois which would have taken him into boundary conditions where other people would have disputed the territory. His gear was stacked up neatly. He didn't keel over, although he was probably tired, exhausted and hurt like hell."
Blood clues to iceman's death
The theory that Oetzi the Iceman died in a violent fight with others has received further support from scientists in Australia.
Oetzi may have strayed into another tribe's territory and got into a fight
The researchers say their DNA study of items found with the 5,300-year-old hunter's body back up the idea that he was involved in close-quarter combat.
"We analysed samples, scrapings from the knife, the axe and from his jacket and it indicates that the blood samples are actually from several different individuals," Dr Ian Findlay, of the Australian Genome Research Facility in Brisbane, said.
Oetzi's mummified remains emerged from a melting glacier in the Alps in 1991. At first, it was thought he died from cold and hunger.
But after years of study, researchers finally discovered a flint arrowhead lodged in the ancient man's back, leading to speculation that he may have fled an attacker before bleeding to death and being encased in ice.
Then further tests on the body revealed a deep wound on Oetzi's right hand and wrist which, according to the findings, were inflicted in the last few hours of the iceman's life.
The researchers said the nature of the wounds suggested they were sustained in a fight. Evidence that Oetzi was holding a knife when he emerged from the melting glacier seemed to support this idea.
The latest work from University of Queensland scientists also fits this picture and suggests the iceman was battling several individuals just before his death.
The Australian team says the blood of two people was on an arrowhead found alongside Oetzi's body.
Dr Tom Loy, director of Queensland University's Institute of Molecular Bioscience, said Oetzi clearly gave as good as he got, firing his arrow into two of his enemies, pulling his precious weapon out of their bodies each time.
copper axe = copper age
iceman's radio carbon thingy states he is much older
season he died in was spring yeah!! The reason why iceman's death was so controversial was due to the different pieces of evidence presented. Like the copper axe, first made archeologist believe he was from the copper age. But due to radiocarbon dating it was found that he was from a much earlier age. Therfore changing the time period length of the copper age.
Also due to him being well preserved it was first thought that iceman was a fairly modern death but due to raidocarban dating it was found that he was five thousand years old! a longbow made of yew
a chamois hide quiver
fourteen arrows (only two finished)
a copper ax
a flint-bladed dagger with a woven sheath
a tool for sharpening (retouching) flint
a larch wood frame and cords of a backpack (pannier)
two birch-bark cylinders
a calf leather belt pouch
a tassel made with a white marble bead and twisted hide strips
two pieces of birch fungus (each threaded with hide strips)