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Transcript of Italy
Raddicchio rosso di Treviso
Spices (peppercorns, bay leaves from trading)
Rice and polenta,
Asiago and grana pardano cheeses
and Connie Kang
A Brief History
Etruscans settled in Italy in 1000 BCE sized early Rome 550 BCE
700 BCE Greeks settled in Southern Italy, brought olives and other goods
Roman Empire 246 BCE to about 200 AD
Dark Ages regions at war with eachother, regional identity and foods
Renaissance: trading, culture, DiMedicis,
Wars and conquers by Spanish, Moors, Germans, French
World War II
Geography and Climate:
Total: 301,340 sq km
Land: 294,140 sq kmwater: 7,200 sq km
This includes Sardinia and Sicily
Border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km
Arable land: 22.57%
Permanent crops: 8.37%
Other: 69.07% (2011)
Regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
The climate vastly varies from North to the South of Italy.
North: Harsh, with very cold winters and hot and humid summers. The presence of the Alps provide cold, snowy winters
In central Italy the climate is regulated by the Mediterranean Sea, the cold season is short
Southern Italy and the islands are mostly warm during the winter and hot the rest of the year. The Mediterranean sea regulates temperature
Salerno, Campania region
Dolomites, Trentino-Alto Adige region
Government and People
Republic with parliament
President: Giorgio Napolitano,
Prime Minister Enrico Letta
Four major political parties, broken up into several parties
Italy has the third-largest economy in Europe
Italy’s economy is divided North and South
North is mostly industrial and capitalized by private companies
South is primarily agricultural, much of which is subsidized
Unemployment is at 11% nationally, topping 35% for people under 30
Christian 80% Most Roman Catholic
Some Jehovah Witnesses and Protestants
Muslims 700,000 but growing, from Africa
Atheists and Agnostics 20%
Italian Parliment Building
Bread represents the body of Christ. When baking bread, always make the sign of the cross over the dough before baking.
Bread can never go upside down when removing it from the oven
Bread is never be thrown away without kissing it first
Never pour wine with your left hand.
To spill some wine on the table, is very good luck because it symbolizes sharing and good friends.
When toasting, always make eye contact with person who you touch glasses with and take a sip
To get rid of Evil Eye: in the presence of the cursed person, a maternal relative drips olive oil into a bowl of water. If the oil beads in a circle around the perimeter of a bowl, she must pray to a female saint for the cure. If the oil beads in a row through the center, they must pray to a male saint.
Common Italian Ingredients:
Coffee: Ethiopia coffee reached Venice in the 1640s with explorers from Africa. First espresso machine in 1901
Olives: olive oil, brought from Greece via Turkey and Lavant
Grapes: (Vinis Vinifera) Iran ninth century bc brought from Phoenicians
Tomatoes: Northern Andean part of South America brought to Europe in the 15th Century by European explorers
Garlic: The Middle East (Modern Iran)
Basil: Traced back to SE Asia.
Pasta: Recipes found in Arab texts as far back as ninth century, pasta as we know it began appearing in Italy around thirteenth century
Rice: China via Marco Polo
Polenta: 15th century trading with new world. A similar porridge
cooked with coarse ground farro prior.
Usually very small and simple
Coffee (the only time of day it may have milk)
Peice of bread or roll.
Italian culture and wines are inseparable. Some of the Italian wines are considered the best in the world.
Italian Wine Pyramid
Farinata (chickpea flatbread)
Pansotti (stuffed Pasta)
Iberian baccala and stoccafisso (preserved cod)
Belonged to Austria Hungry until WW1
German inspired food,
German spoken in North
Bread Gnocci (canederli)
Belonged to Austria-Hungary until WW1
German inspired food
German spoken in north
Filled pastas such as silvlots
Major producer of cheeses
Veal alla milanese (breaded cutlet of veal)
Prosciutto de Parma,
Pork and cattle
Mortadella, bologna, salame di felino, pancetta.
Fresh pasta such as:tortelli, cappelleti, garganelli,
Cow’s milk cheeses including fontina, toma, and fonduta
Jambon de bosses
Artisanal lard; Lard d’Arnad
Caffe’ Valdostano (espresso with grappa)
Terrines and pates
Cattle and pigs
Mortadella bologna confetti
Carciofi alla Romana/Guidea
Prosciutto di manzo
Macherroni alla chitarra
Foods of Southern Italy
and the Islands
C2000 bc with Phoenicians in Southern Italy
Largest grower and producer of wine in the world
13.25 billion gallons of wine annually.
2 million acres of land devoted to growing wine
15% wine goes to the US
20% labeled DOC/DOCG 316 DOC regions 45 DOCG
all other “vino da tavola (vino)”
Names: place, grape, proprietary, Combination grape di place, mythological
History and Statistics
Southern and Island Wine:
Warmer sunny region tends to have full-bodied higher alcohol wines, flavors that reflect the region
Notable wines: Marsala (fortified wine) comes from Sicily Greco di Tufo and Aglianico
25% total wine production, ⅓ of DOCLarge variety of flavor profiles, rich beautiful wines. Most celebrated are from Tuscany.
Brunello di Montelcino, Chianti Classico, Est! Est! Est!
Cooler region lighter bodied wines, German and French Influenced, some varietals from France and Germany grown there.
Barolo and Barbaresco “King and Queen of Italian wines” from Piemont.
Pollution and waste management lead to concern of food safety
Soil erosion and land nutrient depletion
90% of Organic growers members of FederBio
No legal sustainability requirement for uniform criteria
Ratified Kyoto Protocol in ‘01
Slow Food Movement
San Marzano tomatoes
Mozzarella di buffala
Extra virgin olive oil
One of poorest regions
Olives and olive oil
Pork: capocollo, pancetta, salami, sopressata
Ricci di donna,
Melanzane alla Parmigiana,
Swordfish and tuna
Marsala and moscato wines
Impanadas from Spain
Europe 50.8% , Africa 22.1 Asia 18.8% , 8.3% America , Oceania 0.0 %
Notably from Morrocco, China, Albania and Ukraine
Slow Food Movement:
“Slow Food believes that everyone has a fundamental right to the pleasure of good food and consequently the responsibility to protect the heritage of biodiversity, culture and knowledge that make this pleasure possible.
A non-profit member-supported association, Slow Food was founded in 1989 to counter the rise of fast food and fast life.”
Arcigola, is formed in 1986 a precursor to Slow Food by Carlo Petrini in Bra, Italy
1,500 chapters in 150 countries
Dec 1989, 1st international slow food meeting
Pasta and vegetables
Fish or pork for southern Italy
Risotto or braised meat for Northern Italians
Mid course of soup or pasta
Same parallels as lunch for the main course
Typical Christian Holidays such as Christmas and Easter
April 25th Liberation Day
June 2nd Republic Day
December 8th Immaculate Conception Day
January 27th, International Holocaust Rememberance Day
May 1st International Worker's Day
Etiquette and Communication
Clothes indicate your social status, family background, and your education level.
First impressions are lasting impressions in Italy
‘Bella figura' projects style, aura, confidence demeanor, and disposition
Greetings are enthusiastic and formal
Greeting strangers: handshake with direct eye contact and a smile
Greeting friends and relatives: Air-kissing on both cheeks, starting with the left
First name basis is initiated by host or business associate
Calling cards are commonplace, which have one’s name, address, title or academic honors, and number
Being late by fifteen to thirty minutes late is preferred
If you are invited to a meal, bring a gift
Do not give chrysanthemums, red, or yellow flowers
Take care in bringing wine, quality over quantity
Do not wrap gifts in black or purple, they respectively represent death and bad luck
Gifts are usually opened when received
Sit where and where directed
Table manners are Continental the fork in the left hand knife in the right, no switching
Follow the lead of the hostess
The host gives the first toast, and an honored guest should return the toast later. Women may toast as well
Expect to eat multiple helpings
Keep your hands visible and your elbows off the table
It is acceptable to leave a small amount of food on your plate.
Pick up cheese with your knife rather than your fingers.
If you do not want more wine, leave a full glass
"Italy's gastronomic capital"
A scenic veiw from the Alps
A few typical ingredients
A selection of Italian wines
Painting of canals in Venice
A chocolate-hazelnut spread
Polenta topped with mushrooms
Orecchiette with vegetables and olives
A town in Sicily
Casu Maru, a Sardinian cheese with live maggots
Callery, Emma.The Complete Book of Herbs Philadelphia, PA: Courage Books, 1994 Ann Bot. 2010 March; 105(3): 443–455. Published online 2009 December 23.
Casella, Cesare, and Stephanie Lyness. The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Italian Cuisine. 1st ed. New York, NY: Abrams, 2012. Print.
Costantino, Mario, and Lawrence Gambella. The Italian Way: Aspects of Behavior, Attitudes, and Customs of the Italians. Lincolnwood, Ill., USA: Passport, 1996. Print.
Kolpan, Steven, Brian H. Smith, and Michael A. Weiss. Exploring Wine Third Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Morris, Jonathan A Short History of Espresso in Italy and the World. English language post-print of Storia dell’ Espresso Nell’Italia e Nel Mondo in Maurizio Cociancich ed.,100% Espresso Italiano (Trieste, Antorami, 2008) pp.432
McWilliams, Margaret, and Holly Heller. <i>Food around the world: a cultural perspective</i>. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.
Petrini, Carlo, and Gigi Padovani. Slow Food Revolution: A New Culture for Eating and Living. New York: Rizzoli, 2006. Print.
De Laurentiis, Giada. "Tiramisu." Food Network. Giada De Laurentiis, n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2013. http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/tiramisu-recipe/index.html
"7 National Holidays in Italy." Italian Embassy London Official Site. Italian Embassy, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
"Vitis Vinefera." NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826248/
"Development and Characterization of a New TILLING Population of Common Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)" NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402408/
"About Us- Our History." Slow Food International. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://www.slowfood.com/international/2/our-philosophy
"Dossier Statistico Immigrazione." Dossier Statistico Immigrazione. Study and Research Centre IDOS, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://www.dossierimmigrazione.it/docnews/file/2012_Dossier_Scheda.pdf
“Italy and Sustainable Agriculture Overview” United States. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Global Agricultural Information Network. Global Agricultural Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Italy%20and%20Sustainable%20Agriculture%20Overview%20_Rome_Italy_2-11-2013.pdf
"Italy." Wine Education. Wine Education, n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://www.wineeducation.com/regitaly.html
"Italy."The World Factbook 2013-14. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013 .https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html Sept 29. 2013
A scenic view of Lombardia
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8182/7924544968_645fc9875d_o.jpg La Marche 11.11.13 Le Marche
http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02338/Venice-rialto_2338359b.jpg Rialto Bridge 11.11.13 Rialto Bridge
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Petersdom_von_Engelsburg_gesehen.jpg St. Peter’s Basilica
http://www.slowfoodriovista.org/images/slow_food_logo_redlarge1.gif Slow food
http://www.freshpasta.com/graphics/homepagepic2.jpg fresh pasta
Motz de buff
http://0.tqn.com/d/italianfood/1/0/p/E/italy2.gif Northern Italy
http://www.wine-pages.com/images/pyramid.gif WIne pyramid
http://www.almagourmet.com/store/images/white-truffles1.jpg white truffles
http://img4-3.myrecipes.timeinc.net/i/recipes/ck/09/04/panzanella-ck-1886402-l.jpg Panzenella http://www.albapeperoncino.it/uploads/contento/images/big/diavolicchi-calabrese.jpg peppers
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Casu_Marzu_cheese.jpg casu maru, a maggot cheese