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Rapeseed master thesis

Master in Consumption Sciences and Nutrition
by

Anita Lopes

on 29 January 2014

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Transcript of Rapeseed master thesis

Food moves through the GI tract.

Each organ of the tract is seperated from eachother by muscular sphincters that prevent mixing of material

Food is digested in two ways:
physical
- large pieces are broken into smaller pieces.
chemical
- enzymes disrupt bonds between monomers
Fungi
Plants
Animals
Overview
The Mammalian Digestive System
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Accessory Glands
Large Intestine
Control
Adaptations
Overview
Roots
Adaptations
Plant Nutrients
Soil
Structure
Symbiosis
Nutritional
Symbiotic
Most fungi are
saprophytic
(they eat dead things).
Some fungi are
parasitic
Exercise caution when thinking about eating fungi.
With the exception of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen, plants recieve most nutrients from the
soil
Hydroponic
techniques are utilized to determine the effects of specific nutrient deficiencies on plant growth.
While all organisms require SPONCH to live, plants are particularly sensitive to Potassium deficiencies as well,
Soil is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds of both biological and physical origin.

Soil is produced and replenished through natural processes including deposition, weathering and decomposition.

There is a directionality to typical soil production, with newer, nutrient-rich soil being deposited in the top
horizon
.
The "Dustbowl" in the American Midwest: An example of accelerated
soil depletion
due to human ignorance combined with natural drought cycles.
Contour farming
: one example of a practice that can slow erosion due to farming.
Plant roots are the structures responsible for soil nutrient absorption.

Root Hairs
: Major absorptive surface of roots.
Cation Exchange
Protons are pumped out of plant roots into the soil.

The protons displace nutritive cations (K+, Mg++, etc.) in the soil, which are then absorbed into the roots.

Nutrients move in to roots via diffusion, mostly.
Plants rely upon bacteria and fungi to provide them with some nutrients in the soil.
Bacteria
Fungi
Bacteria play a major role in the
Nitrogen Cycle
The action of
nitrogen-fixing
bacteria in the soil converts atmospheric nitrogen into biologically useful forms, which can be incorporated from soil into amino acids and nucleotides by plants.

This is how all nitrogen enters the food chain.

Legumes
: plants that have specialized
root-nodule
adaptations that contain populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Mycorrhizae
: Symbiotic fungal-root associations.

Increase nutrient absorption by roots.
Development & Structure of Root Nodules
"Carnivorous" Plants
Live in nutrient-poor soils.

Adapted to catch and digest small animals as a supplementary source of soil nutrients (particularly nitrogen).
Epiphytes
Plants that live on other plants.

Typical in rainforests and other soil-poor areas.

Can be mutualistic, commensal, or parasitic.
Parasites
There are many different plant parasites of other plants, with a wide diversity of parasitic adaptations.
Animal nutrition involves four phases:
Ingestion
: Intake of food
Digestion
: Breakdown of food macromolecules
Absorption
: Transfer of nutrients into the body
Elimination
: voiding of undigested materials
Diploblastic animals (cnidarians) utilize a
gastrovascular cavity
for nutrition.

The "Bag" plan: The mouth of the animal is also the anus.
Triploblastic animals (everything else) utilize a
gastrointestinal
("
GI
")
tract
for nutrition.

The "tube" plan: The mouth is at one end of the tract and the anus is at the other end.
The evolution of a gastrointestinal tract allows for compartmentalization of the digestive system and increased efficiency & control of nutrition.

Peristalsis
: involuntary contractions of smooth muscle that line the gastrointestinal tract and move food through the tube.
There are a wide variety of strategies used by animals to accomplish this process
Nutritional Requirements
Animals need to aquire all nutrients from their environment.
This includes macromolecules, vitamins and minerals.
Some can be synthesized from raw materials, others must be consumed "pre-made"
Vitamins
: Organic, non-macromolecular, compounds
Minerals
: inorganic elements
Data from an experiment (right) looking at the effects of invasive garlic mustard (left) on the ability of native plants to form mycorrhizal associations
Disorders
Deficiencies in nutritional requirements will have effects on the physiology of the organism
Starvation
results in digestion of the bodies stored nutrients.
Lack of specific nutrients will have specific effects on physiology. Shown:
Kwashiorkor
, a protein deficiency
Data showing a correlation between consumption of folic acid vitamin supplements and a decreased likelihood of neural tube birth defects in a sample of the female population of Great Britain.
General Points:
The human digestive system is a very typical example of the mammalian digestive system.
Structure
Functions
Teeth, tongue, and salivary glands.
Teeth
: mechanically digest food.

Tongue
: moves food into gastrointestinal tract.

Salivary Glands
: Produce
saliva
which moistens food and contains
amylase
(chemically digests starches)
Structure
Functions
A tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Begins transport of food through the GI tract.
Pharynx
: beginning of esophagus.
epiglottis
: Prevents movement of food into the respiratory system
Structure
Functions
A muscular pouch.
Capable of rapid expansion.
Filled with "
gastric juice
" (a mixture of pepsin and hydrochloric acid).

Processes food into
chyme
.
Holds food.
Mixes food.
Gastric Juice:
HCl
- Sanitizes food.
pepsin
- chemicall digests protein
Stomach Ultrastructure
The walls of the stomach contain many "gastric pits"
Three cell types:
mucous cells
: make a protective mucous coating for the stomach epithelium.
Parietal cells
: Produce HCl
Chief cells
: Produce the pepsin protein precursor pepsinogen

Pepsinogen
is an example of a "
zymogen
", an inactive protein molecule that is converted into the active form in specific conditions

In the case of pepsinogen, HCl is needed to cleave it in to active pepsin.

Why is the pepsinogen/pepsin system necessary?
Term refers to any organs that make secretions that are introduced into the GI tract.
Liver
Pancreas
Makes
bile
which
emulsifies
fat (physical digestion).

Excess bile is stored in the
gallbladder
.
Makes
pancreatic fluid
, which contains a variety of hydrolytic enzymes for all macromolecules
Carbohydrates-
pancreatic amylase
Lipids-
pancreatic lipase
Nucleic Acids-
pancreatic nucleases
Proteins-
trypsin
,
chymotrypsin
, &
carboxypeptidase
The pancreas also produces
bicarbonate ions
, which raise the pH of the chyme (pancreatic enzymes function in basic pH)
Bile and Pancreatic fluid enter the GI tract through a common duct at the beginning of the small intestine (the "
duodenum
")
Structure:
3 sections:
Duodenum
: Digestive section.
Jejunum
: Primary absorptive section (most nutrients)
Ileum
: Final absorptive section (bile salts and some vitamins).
Small Intestine Ultrastructure:
The epithelium of the small intestine is adapted for absorption of nutrients.
Villi
: projections of epithelial tissue. Each vilus is covered in
microvilli
(the "
brush border
").
A network of
capilaries
(circulatory system) and
lacteals
(lymph vessels) runs through each vilus, separated from the
lumen
(interior) of the small intestine by the brush border.

Nutrients diffuse through the brush border, into the circulatory/lymphatic system.
Carbohydrates, amino acids, and other water-soluble molecules are absorbed into the circulatory system, while lipids are absorbed in to the lymphatic system.

Blood and lymph flow from the small intestine to the liver for detoxification of absorbed molecules.
Function:
Final stages of digestion and main area of absorption of nutrients
Structure:
A tube that holds undigested, unabsorbed digestive material.

Also holds a massive colony (~90 trillion cells) of symbiotic bacteria.
Function:
Small Intestine
Reabsorption of water.

Production & absorption of vitamins by bacteria.

Storage and (usually) voluntary elimination of undigested food ("feces")
Digestive Hormones
There are several hormones involved in the digestive system.
The GI tract is under the control of an entire division of the autonomic nervous system (the "
enteric
" division), and is subject to several different regulatory feedback loops
2. Regulation of Blood-Glucose Level
Controlled by 2 pancreatic hormones:
Insulin
- removes excess glucose from the blood via storage in body cells and conversion to
glycogen
in the liver.
Glucagon
- increases glucose level in the blood via glycogen breakdown and glucose release from the liver.
1. Digestion Control
1. The expansion of the stomach to accomodate incoming food trigers the release of
gastrin
, which stimulates production of gastric juice.

2. As chyme moves in to the duodenum, the presence of amino acids and fatty acids trigers the release of
CCK
by duodenal cells, which causes the liver and pancreas to release secretions into the GI tract. The hormone
secretin
is also released by the duodenum which causes the pancreas to release bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acidic chyme.

3. Very fatty foods will cause a large amound of secretin and CCK to be released, which has an inhibitory effect on peristalsis and slows down the digestive process.
3. Satiety
Satiety
is the feeling of being "full".

Under the control of the hypothalamus in the brain.

Leptin
,
Insulin
, and
PYY
are three hormones that decrease the hunger sensation.

Ghrelin
increases the hunger sensation and decreases saitety.

These hormones work in an antagonistic fashion, similarly to insulin and glucagon.
Data from an experiment in which ob mutant mice (genetically prone to obesity) were surgically joined to non-mutants.
ob mutants show decreased body mass gains when joined to non-mutant mice.
While humans have a fairly typical digestive system, other mammals demonstrate various adaptations.
Dentition
Variation in tooth structure allows animals to adapt to particular sources of food.
GI Tract Adaptations
Many herbivores have highly adapted, elongated appendix structures ("
Cecum
"), which serve as locations for colonies of bacteria that can aid in cellulose digestion.

Carnivores do not have these structures.
Ruminants
Herbivores that possess highly adapted, expanded upper GI tracts.

Allow for maximized
mastication
of vegetable matter and prolonged exposure to symbiotic bacteria.
Obesity
Temporary obesity is frequently seen in animals to deal with environmental fluctuations and nutritional requirements of specific life stages.
Disruptions in food cycles that animals have adapted to can lead to unintended obesity.

This is perhaps the major reason why there is currently an obesity "epidemic" in the United States.
There are many disorders of the digestive system. Here are a few examples:
"Upper GI" Disorders:
"Lower GI" Disorders:
Ulcers
Acid Reflux
Diarrhea/Constipation
Irritable Bowel Disease
Cause:
Symptoms:
Cause:
Symptoms:
Cause:
Symptoms:
Cause:
Symptoms:
A disruption of the protective mucus lining of the stomach.

Often caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium. Frequently stress-linked.
Persistent "Burning sensation" in upper abdomen.
Treatment:
Antibiotics, diet modification, possible surgery.
Movement of stomach contents through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Transient "Burning sensation" in upper abdomen, particularly following meals.
Treatment:
Antacids, medications that reduce HCl production.
Diarrhea: too much water in feces (decreased absorption by large intestine).

Constipation: too little water in feces (feces remains in large intestine longer than normal).
Cramping (Diarrhea),
Tenesmus
(constipation)
Treatment:
Immediate: laxatives, indigestion aids (e.g. pepto bismol).

Long-term: Diet modification. Increased fiber intake. Decreased intake of fatty, sugary foods.
Irritation and inflammation of the large intestine.

Ultimate etiology is unclear (stress? Autoimmune?)
Irregular, spastic bowel movements. Discomfort, bleeding (severe cases)
Treatment:
Medication, Diet modification, surgery (extreme cases).
Big Questions:
Make Sure You Can:
Why do organisms need to acquire nutrients?

How do organisms acquire nutrients?

What happens if organisms are unable to acquire nutrients?
The Amanita muscaria mushroom causes liver failure and psychosis in animals
"Nom Nom Nom"
"Nom Nom Nom"
Chemical Digestion: A summary
Explain why organisms require nutrients, how they accomplish the processes involved in nutrition, and the consequences of malnutrition.

Compare and contrast plant and animal nutrition.

Explain the structure and function of all organs involved in plant and animal nutrition.

Describe the roles of symbiotic relationships in both plant and animal nutrition.

Describe the modes of hormonal regulation of mammalian nutrition.

Explain the causes, effects and treatments of various disorders of the human digestive system.
"all that remains is a husk"
Note:
Need to click the link, since embedding is disabled.
Sound effects are a bit over the top
Hamster on a piano...eating popcorn
From bad to worse...
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7eQKSf0LmY
Rapeseed
-

Introduction:

Gut microbiota
Prebiotic concept
Rapeseed meal innovative aspects

-

Aims of the study

- Materials and methods

- Results & Discussion

- Conclusion & References
Index

Internship under the
ERASMUS placement
program held at the
University of Hohenheim - Institute of Animal Nutrition
. Stuttgart, Germany.
Mentor:
Rita Cabrita, Assistant professor at FCUP
Host Mentor:
Rainer Mosenthin, Full Professor
Institute of Animal Nutrition
(University of Hohenheim)
https://www.uni-hohenheim.de/
10^10 – 10^12 cells per gram of feces

Interactions between host <-> GI microbes

Nutrient processing / fermentation
Human gut microbiota
GI = gastrointestinal
Commensal / beneficial bacteria
Pathogenic / pathobiont bacteria
Gut microbiota balance
Pathogenic bacteria
Diarrhea; constipation
Infections
Liver damage
Toxins production
Human gut microbiota
Principal and adaptable polysaccharide fermenters: genus
Bacteroides

Genera
Bifidobacterium
,
Ruminococcus
,
Lactobacillus
and
Clostridium
Human gut microbiota
YOUR DIET IS LIKE A BANK ACCOUNT.
Bethenny Frankel
Important gut microbiota species
Predominant bacterial groups:
Anaerobic
Bacteroides
Bifidobacterium
Clostridium spp.
Facultative anaerobic
Lactobacillus spp.
Enterobacteria
Antibiotic resistance mechanisms (beta-lactam antibiotics)

Toxic substances

Influence the host immune system to control other (competing) pathogens

Generally beneficial relationship with the host.
Acid production as metabolic end products (acetate, lactate) -> lowers pH -> antibacterial effect


Metabolic end product -> directly inhibitory to a range of Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogenic bacteria
Complex and diverse group


Synergize with other intestinal microbiota -> ferment unabsorbed dietary carbohydrate -> SCFA (butyrate -> major energy source) -> intestinal epithelial function


Though
some species
are v
ery harmful and responsible
for

intesti
nal infec
tions (e.
g. colitis)
Improves lactose digestion in fermented foods into a more suitable form


Stimulation of immune functions


Lactic acid production -> lowers the gut pH -> reduce pathogenic load

Among the most Gram(-) pathogens associated with respiratory and urinary tract infections


Though, some strains have also positive effects, depending on its amount and the host health (e.g.
Escherichia coli
)
Lactobacillus spp
.
Clostridium spp.
Bifidobacterium
Bacteroides
Enterobacteria
Prebiotics
“A prebiotic is a
non-digestible
food ingredient that
beneficially
affects the host by selectively
stimulating
the
growth
and/or
activity
of one or a limited number of
beneficial bacteria
in the colon, and thus
improves

host health
.”
Resistant starch
Non-starch polysaccharides (hemicellulose, pectins, gums and non-digestible OLS)
Carlsson et al. (1992)
High-temperature capillary gas chromatography method
Quantify OLS in foods, diets and intestinal contents
Rapeseed (RS) contains considerable amounts of OLS raffinose family, specially stachyose (0.94-1.52%)
CONCLUSION
RAPESEED
Bifidobacterium growth stimulation
RS is the most important
oilseed
in Europe
2nd most important worldwide after soybeans (
SB
)
Highly productive
winter crop
in Europe
Szydlowska-Czerniak (2013)
RS is currently planted on
10%
of the agricultural cropland
2005/06
RS cultivation increased 10% Northwest Germany -> increasing
RSmeal (RSM)

production.
Included in compound feed as dietary ingredient to animal feeding
70%
used for plant oil fuel and bio-diesel
RSM composition
Nutrient fermentation
Principal substrates:
nondigestible dietary carbohydrates
Oligosaccharides
(OLS)
Simple sugars:
lactose, raffinose, stachyose, fructooligosaccharides (oligofructose; inulin)
Non-starch
polysaccharides and
resistant starch
By-product of RS oil extraction
Contains up to
42%
protein (dry basis)

Richness in phenolic and other bioactive compounds:
tocopherols, vitamin B, choline

Bioelements:
Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu
-> may impose
positive health effects
RSM anti-nutritional factors
Livestock feed:
GSL
reduce feed acceptance
due to their ‘
hot
’ and
spicy
taste (similar to that in mustard)
Glucosinolates - GSL
Erucic acid - EA
Phytic acid, tannins, mucilage
RS treatment
GSL degradation
Plant breeders -> reduce the unwanted ingredients -> “00-RS"
(for farm animals)
Organic sulfur compounds
Adverse effects
in farm animals:
thyroid
function
Poisoning / toxic
RSM fo
r

pigs
RS for human nutrition
Fleddermann et al. (2012)
In humans
Protein-rich residue from RS oil (normally used as animal feed) -> nutritionally equivalent to the protein isolate from soy.
Suggest that
SB
(cultivated in USA) -> may be potentially replaced by
RS
protein harvested in
Europe
Effects on the
gut microbiota
?
Potential
prebiotic

/

novel food
for human nutrition?
Considering RSM composition and OLS content
Aim of the study
Effects of differently heat treated RSM in the microbial communities in ileal digesta and fecal samples of pigs (
animal model
)
Material and Methods
1. Animals, housing and surgical procedure
Eight (6 + 2 for replacement)
piglets
(German Landrace × Piétrain)
After
10 - 15 days adaptation
period -> pigs were surgically fitted with a simple
T-cannula

Recovery period: 7 days
Material and Methods
2. Diets, feeding and sampling
Feeding:
2x daily
at
7am/pm
-> fed level splitted in 2 meals (each time
half
of 35g/kg)
Each experimental period ->
6 days adaptation
to the diets and fed allowances
Daily level:
35 g/kg
(as-fed) of the average BW -> determined on day
1
of each experimental period
Day 7
-> fresh feces of each piglet -> sampled immediately
after defecation
.
-> ileal digesta sampled at the time of
highest digesta flow rate
at 12:00h.
Ileal digesta (
N=30
) and feces (
N=30
) samples into plastic tubing -> stored at
-80°C
until further analysis.
Material and Methods
3. Bacterial DNA extraction
4. qPCR
2 protocols combination:
QIAamp® DNA Stool for Pathogen Detection
Yu and Morrison modified protocol
DNA quantity and quality:
NanoDrop
(2x + mean values calculated)
DNA fragments checking:
Agarose gel electrophoresis
1% agarose
1% TAE buffer + 1μul
of 1:100 solution of
Midori Green
Ribosomal Database Project
PCR optimizations
iCycler iQ5 Real-time Detection System
- Bio-Rad
iCycler Optical System Interface software (Version 2.0)
95°C for 15 min

(initial denaturation)
40 cycles:

95°C for 15 sec

(denaturation)

primer annealing for

20 sec

72°C for 20 sec

(extension)

72°C for 5 min

(final elongation step)

stepwise

72°C

(melting curve data)
2% agarose
1% TBE buffer + 1μul
of 1:100 solution of
Midori Green
5. DNA purification
PCR standards
6. Statistical analysis
SAS STAT software (Version 9.2)
Data analysis:
Students-t test
PROC MIXED
Fixed effects:
treatment, periods and animals
Random effects:
Interactions between
period × animals effects
(compound symmetry variance-covariance structure)
Results:
LS-means
of the
log10 16S rDNA
gene copy numbers/gram of fresh
ileum
digesta sample
Significance level
<0.05
RESULTS
PERIOD EFFECT
TREATMENT EFFECT
ANIMAL EFFECT
DISCUSSION
Overall:
Ileal digesta microbiota was very
stable
(gene copy numbers)
There is
no disturbance
for all the bacteria groups studied caused by the different rapeseed treatments, periods or animals either
Except for
Enterobacteria
and

Roseburia
spp.
1. Microbiota activity
DISCUSSION
Speculation:
due to specific
non-digestible carbohydrates
in rapeseed (e.g. OLS, pectins, arabinose-based carbohydrates)
Different bacterial groups might have been stimulated
2. Pigs' gut microbiota
DISCUSSION
Index of a health promoting microbiota
3. Heat treatment
DISCUSSION
4. Prebiotic concept
DISCUSSION
Results not in accordance with Dinotos’ work.
Probably due to different methods used and sample origins (rat vs. pig)
lactobacilli
enterobacteria
0,97
Host health ->
increase of Enterobacteria
>
harmful
->
decrease
>
beneficial
for both period and treatment effects
Tendency in
treatment
effect >
Enterobacteria
P
=0.056
Chemical
+
physical

structure of some nutrients could have been
changed
by
heat
influence:
->
some becoming
less
available and some
more
available
GSL content
Temperature affected the GSL content
-> influenced the nutrients that reached the colon and were fermented by the microbiota
Enterobacteria

group -> higher growth with
89%
GSL loss
Roseburia spp.

grew more in 6umol GSL/g DM (
83%
GSL loss)
Besides some unexpected results:
->

RSM
is a potential candidate as a
food additive
->
raffinose, stachyose, pectins
-> could reach the intestine for
fermentation by intestinal bacteria
Potentially helping to improve the humans and animals gut health
Conclusion
General -> microbiota was very

stable
,

not being

strongly influenced by the different RS treatments.
Only
Enterobacteria
+
Roseburia spp.
showed statistical relevance to the
treatment
and
animal effect
(respect.).
Heat

treatment
appeared to have an influence in the
RSM composition
.
Further analysis ->
optimal RSM processing conditions
; determination of the
initial host microbiota
and the
end

fermentation metabolites
->
potential role
of the RSM in the
microbiota
and its use as a
prebiotic
.
THANK YOU!
Any question?
GoLive Probiotics & Prebiotics
PORTO -
References
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22. Fleddermann, M., et al.(2012). Nutritional evaluation of rapeseed protein compared to soy protein for quality, plasma amino acids, and nitrogen balance - A randomized cross-over intervention study in humans. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland).
23. Fontaine, J., et al.(2007). Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 55(26):10737-43.
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Only considered the
ileal digesta
samples!
(0.94-1.52%)
RESULTS
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