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Logical Fallacies

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by

Kashawn Mance

on 18 October 2014

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Examples
Why do I have to take a spanish class, I'm not going to live to Mexico.
As Jerry was accused of being lazy by his mom, he replied, "Mom, I cleaned my room, took out the trash and washed the dishes today.
This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them
Someone using a Red Herring is likely to be unsure of how to answer an argument without calling attention or blame to themselves
Red Herring
Logical Fallacies
What Are Logical Fallacies? :
Oversimplification
What is oversimplification? :
Kashawn Mance Period: 3
Mitchell Silva
Jacob Frederiksen 10-17-14


Ad Hominem
Logical Fallacies
This is an attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments
Ad Hominem is Latin for against the man
A logical fallacy is an argument that depends on unsound or illogical reasoning.
People using Ad Hominem in an argument are usually defensive or easily offended.
This is not always the case though, sometimes an ad hominem can be used like begging the question (see example 3) and in a less negative tone
Jerry set the curve on the last test so he must have cheated because Jerry is dumb.
He's an environmentalist so of course he would vote yes on P!
*You say the gap between the rich and poor is unacceptable. You don't really mean that, do you? Communists say the same thing. You're not a communist, are you?
Are there different types of Fallacies? :
Yes, there are several types of logical fallacies. A few examples include...
Slippery Slope
Straw Man
Non Sequitur

Oversimplification
Post Hoc
Non Sequitur
Hasty Generalization
Circular Argument
Examples
Definition:

- a statement that does not follow a previous argument
- is often used to bring comedy into a piece of literature

Examples:
Oversimplification or, "the reductive fallacy", is seen when causes for an event or occurrence are reduced or simplified to the point where it is no longer a genuine connection to the original occurrence.
- We were talking about the football
game when she started to talk about
her dog.

-He's an alcoholic, he has a DUI.
Post Hoc
For example:
In this Old Spice commercial the argument begins with how a male should smell and ends with the narrator on a horse with diamonds showering from his hand making the connection no longer genuine.
Example:

Slippery Slope
The video talks about how Ernie was able to keep the alligators off Sesame Street by talking to the banana.
Circular Reasoning
Hasty Generalization:
- the fallacy that makes a claim without any evidence
- When used in literature, is often explained without any reason

Example:
1) "I've never been there before, but it doesn't look good."

Circular reasoning is based off of each prior example as evidence
In other words, this sort of argument has no sort of backup and has only one main idea
Many circular arguments are an easy way to drag on the situation with little knowledge of the idea you are defending
Examples
The picture on the right shows how a dog believes it is a cat because it shares on common feature.
- A Post Hoc explains why something happened because of something else
-Is also called a Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Why does she go to practice? Because shes on my team. Why is she on your team? Because she goes to practice.
Clean your room. Why? Because I said.
Examples:
He is mad right now.
How do you know?
Well, because he is really angry.
The video is an example of slippery slope because it isn't using any actual supporting evidence, rather leading the viewer on a journey that sounds horrible and making the viewer think that the only solution is to get Direct T.V.
Slippery slope is a conclusion based on the idea that if the proposed idea happens it will lead to various steps ultimately leading to an unwanted result. In order for this result not to occur the person must avoid the initial idea.
Straw Man :
The Straw Man argument is when a topic is misrepresented to make it easier to attack. It is very similar to Ad Hominem in its presentation.
Examples :
Senator Jacob argues that more money should be invested in health and education to support social well-being. Senator Fred replies by saying that he is appalled that Jacob hates our country so much that he would want to cut military funding and leave our country defenceless.
Try your own
Match the following fallacies being used:

1) I know i forgot to clean my room but Jerry never does!

2) Don't forget to brush your teeth or you'll get bad breath and you wont be able to get a girlfriend with bad breath and with no girlfriends you'll die alone.

3) We always win the football game when I wear my lucky ring.


A) Slippery Slope
B) Post Hoc
C) Red Herring
Full transcript