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Chapter 1 SIOP

Dawn M Iglesias

on 20 January 2014

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Include a high level of student engagement and interaction that promotes critical thinking and oral language development.

Include a variety of assignments and activities that tap into the multiple intelligences of students.

Include projects, oral reports, written assignments, portfolios, performance-based assessments, hands-on and pictorial activities such as graphs, charts, illustrations, models, key concepts, etc.

Students are taught explicitly.

Students’ affective needs, cultural backgrounds, and learning styles are included.
What do SIOP Lessons Look Like?
Approach for teaching content to ELL students. It makes content comprehensible and promotes English language development. Also referred as SDAIE (specially designed academic instruction in English).

This course will be based on the professional development model that evolved from SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol).
Sheltered Instruction
FROM….. the content-based ESL approach which is used by language teachers based on thematic units. The main goal is to develop language by incorporating information from content area subjects. This approach has not been sufficient for ELL students to succeed academically.

TO…..Sheltered English Instruction, SDAIE, and SIOP. This approach is used by content teachers. The main goal is to develop content and language. Some techniques used are: cooperative learning, connections to students’ experiences, targeted vocabulary development, slower speech and fewer idiomatic expressions, use of visuals and demonstrations, and use of adapted texts and materials.
Changes in Instructional Practice for ELL Students
The research of the National Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE) reached the same conclusions as the National Literacy Panel but they also found that:

Oralcy and literacy can be developed simultaneously.

ELL students need enhanced and explicit vocabulary development.

ELL students need instructional accommodations and support to fully develop their English skills.
Academic Literacy
Variety of educational and cultural experiences.
Represent 180 native languages.
Have had different schooling experiences.
Have different expectations about schooling.
Different socio-economic status.
Limited or full formal schooling.
Many are U. S. born and may only speak a language other than English at home.
Parents’ education levels and proficiency in English vary.
English Learner Diversity
90% of recent immigrants come from non-English speaking countries.

There were 5 million school age children identified as ELL in 2004-2005.

Hispanic students make up 75% of the ELL student population.

States with the most immigrant students: CA (35%), TX (11%), NY (11%), FL (7%), IL (5%), and NJ (4%).

Projections suggest “language minority students” will comprise over 40 percent of elementary and secondary students by 2030 (Thomas & Collier, 2001).

59% of adolescent ELL students live in families with incomes 185% below the poverty line compared to 28% of adolescents who live in English speaking homes.
Demographic Changes
89% of Hispanic middle and high school students read below grade level.

96% of 8th grade ELL students scored below the basic level in the reading portion of the NAEP (Nat’l Assessment of Educational Progress) test.

ELL students have the highest drop out rates compared to language majority students.

31% of all young ELL secondary do not complete high school even though some of them completed graduation requirements.
Lesson Preparation
Building Background
Comprehensible Input
Lesson Delivery
The SIOP Model: 6 Features to the Lesson Planning Process
What are some challenges of learning English?
The first instrument was drafted in the 1990’s.

In 1996, a SIOP model was created based on the instrument (See APPENDIX C).

In 2001, the SIOP instrument was confirmed to be a valid and reliable measure of the SIOP model.
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
Age appropriate knowledge of the English language is pre-requisite in the attainment of content standards.

Secondary school subjects require language use and cognitive skills that are more complex and specific.

The research of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth concluded that:

ELL students benefit from oral language proficiency instruction.

ELL students benefit from reading instruction such as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension.

Oral proficiency and literacy in the student’s native language will facilitate development of literacy in English.

Home language experiences can contribute to English literacy achievement.
Academic Literacy
Chapter 1
Introducing Sheltered Instruction

Making Content Comprehensible for
English Learners
Echevarría, Vogt, & Short


Dawn Sinclair-Iglesias, Barbara Luke, Laura Asen
Professionals will be able to:
understand the difference between content and language objectives.
explain the importance of incorporating language objectives into lesson plans.
design and integrate language objectives into everyday lesson planning.
Watch this video on SDAIE. Enjoy
Lesson Preparation
Preparing a lesson plan that meets the needs of English language learners should include the following 6 components:

Content Objectives are clearly defined, displayed, and reviewed
Language Objectives are clearly defined, displayed, and reviewed
Age appropriate content and consideration of background knowledge
Lesson is clear and meaningful by using supplementary models
Consideration of all students' English proficiency
Meaningful activities are integrated and ample practice opportunities are present
A Successful lesson plan ensures that all students experience maximum learning.

Lesson plans must target specific learning goads to be successful
Consider student's background knowledge
Includes practice time
Assessments that ensure student learning and understanding
Limits vocabulary heavy material
Includes age appropriate materials
Concepts are not biased against English language learners

Content Objectives
*Content objectives should always follow Common Core State Standards

*Utilize student-friendly language

*Only use one or two content objectives per lesson

*Display the content objectives in the classroom where the students can clearly see them

*Review the content objectives with students

Language Objectives
The same principles of content objectives are applied to language objectives
What are student's proficiency level?
Receptive Skills: listening and reading
Productive Skills: speaking and writing
These should be taught at the same time!
ALL teachers, not just ESL teachers should work on language development in ELL's
Language assessments should not only monitor content but also language in ELL's
When writing language objectives, consider the following 4 categories:

1. Academic vocabulary
Current vocabulary
General academic vocabulary
Parts of words

2. Language skills and functions

3. Language structures or grammar

4. Language learning strategies
When teaching English Language Learners:

Always provide age-appropriate scaffolding

Use materials from earlier grades if necessary

Keep in mind that a student may have already learned certain concepts

Always investigate prior Knowledge
Using age-appropriate materials in class is
a) Important for non-grade level academic background students and
b) Students with language and/or learning difficulties
Real life objects
Pictures / Visuals
Class Demonstrations
Related Literature
Chapter Summaries
Gifted and Special Needs ELL's
An initial assessment is crucial in determining if an ELL has special needs. Are they gifted? Do they have a learning disability? Or other special needs?
Learning Disabilities
If this is not obvious, it may take up to one year to discover a learning disability. Are they literate in their native language? What level of disability do they have? May just need repeated instruction when other ELL's do not. May just be slower than other ELL's in the class.
Gifted ELL students
Curious, observant, and creative
Acquires 2nd language easily
Switches between languages easily
Navigates successfully between
cultures of 2 languages
Special Needs
May require special devices in the classroom
Has previous medical condition documentation
Known brain damage
Physical difficulty
Cleft palate (difficulty with language)
As teachers, sometimes we have to adapt content to fit our student's needs
*Allow students to research in their native language and explain in English to classmates

*Simplify content by summarizing

*Elaborating the text and adding information

*Rewriting the text to better understand the text
Should always support content standards
Should always promote language development skills
Be Meaningful to be remembered
Represent reality
Story telling
Present objectives to your class
Jigsaw Test Reading
Graphic Organizers
Audio supported Text
Technology Resources
Internet Resources:

Software Resource:

Chapter 2
Lesson Preparation

Please watch this video on displaying content
objectives to your class!
Please watch this video!
Chapter 5
Mental Pathways are the way in which information is retained in the brain.
Cognitive Learning Strategies
Cognitive learning strategies is self-regulated learning and is acquired when a learner mentally and/or physically manipulates materials.
Meta cognitive Learning Strategies
Meta cognitive learning strategies is when a learner monitors their own thinking. When this strategy is utilized, comprehension improves.
Other Learning Strategies...
*Pairing a student with a language partner

*Having them practice English when they are alone

*Making sure they have a positive can-do attitude

Background Knowledge is So Important!!!!
Many students already know several learning strategies that work for them!
Try to find out their background knowledge!
Students may have to experiment with several learning strategies to find what works for them.
Scaffolding is when a teacher provides support at the beginning stages of learning and as the learner gains experience, the teacher gradually decreases the amount of support.
Higher Order Thinking Skills
Webb's Depth of Knowledge
Using different strategies are an excellent way of retaining information.
Strategies should be well-developed and meaningful.
Preview a story or a chapter before actually reading
Make a personal connection with what is being taught
Using mnemonics
Highlighting or underlining important information
Using sticky notes to remember important information
Good note taking
Reading aloud and re-reading material
Using graphic organizers
Identifying key vocabulary words
Ask yourself "Do I understand what is being taught?" If not, "What can I do differently to help myself?"
Language Learning Strategies
While reading, preview,
skim, scan, and review
Breaking up words
into their components
Group and
label words
Draw pictures
and use gestures
to communicate
Substitute a native word
when the English word
is not known
Imitate behaviors of
English speakers in order
to complete a task
Gradual release of responsibility
3 Types of Scaffolding:
Verbal Scaffolding:
Thinking out loud.
Slower speech, increasing pauses, speaking in phrases, and eliciting more language and information from the learner.
Procedural Scaffolding:
Model, guide, practice
One on one teaching, coaching
Small group instruction
Partner or grouping students
Instructional Scaffolding:
Graphic organizers
Completed assignment models
Types of Scaffolding
When Bloom's Taxonomy is used correctly in the classroom, it can generate a higher order of thinking in learners.
DOK is more complex than Bloom's and it analyzes the cognitive expectations of Common Core Standards, academic tasks and assessments.
Teaching Ideas
DR-TA - Directed reading
As the teacher is reading, ask several questions while reading
- (Squeepers)
GIST - Generate Interaction between schemata and texts
*Summarizing technique
Graphic Organizers
Reciprocal Teaching
Q & A Relationship
Excellent video on scaffolding! Enjoy!
Chapter 3
Building Background
An effective teacher takes their students from their current level of understanding to a higher level of understanding
Students' Background Experiences
"Schemata- knowledge of the world. Provides a basis for understanding, learning, and remembering facts and ideas found in texts."
Effective ways to increase comprehension and success is to build on the students' experiences to text.
Include chapter previews and study guides.
Recognize students are from a diverse background and may not have comprehension of text, written or spoken.
Acknowledging English Learners bring an array of experiences that are different from the United States.
Teachers should provide visual aids for English learners.

Assisting with background knowledge
Something to think about
When writing SIOP lessons ask yourself these three questions.
What is meant by activating prior knowledge?
What is meant by building background?
How do they differ instructionally?
It is important teachers build in techniques to fill in the gaps that the English learner do not understand. The goal is to make connections for the English learners using concrete materials.
Build a bridge between previously learned lessons and concepts to the current lesson.
Key Vocabulary Emphasized

What is necessary for growth in English learners?

vocabulary development
content area texts that students must read include very sophisticated vocabulary
wide ranging vocabulary knowledge
vocabulary instruction must be accelerated because they are learning English later than their native-speaking peers
acquisition of deep understandings of word meaning is challenging
These students need lots of motivation and encouragement to build strong vocabularies.
Academic Vocabulary
The language for reading and writing.
Sets of words
organizational strategies
higher order thinking processes
abstract concepts
IMPORTANT: "what they know about their home language and what they're learning about English"
Writing language objectives for SIOP lessons
1. Content Vocabulary- Subject Specific and Technical Terms.

2. General Academic Vocabulary- Cross Curricular Terms/ Process and Function
a.) Cross-curricular terms- can be used in more than one area of learning.
b.) Language processes and functions- general academic terms that tell what we want to do with language, for example words like; debate, classify,and give an opinion.

3. Word Parts: Roots and Affixes- allows for students to learn new vocabulary.
Tier Words
Tier One:
Tier Two:
Tier Three:
simple nouns,verbs, high-frequency words and sight words.
General Academic Vocabulary.
commonly found in school texts
not in general conversations
Uncommon words
Teachers are not suppose to spend much time on these kind of words.
Specific to content-related topics.
Students Should
Be active in developing their understanding of words and ways to learn them.
Personalize word learning
Rich language environments that focus on words and draw students' attention to the learning of words.

Build on many different sources of information to learn words through repetitious exposure.
Teaching Ideas for Building Background
Read aloud
Digital Jumpstarts
Insert Method
Pretest with a Partner
Word Clouds
Word Sorts
Contextualizing Key Vocabulary
Word Wall
Four Corner Vocab. Charts
Concept Definition Maps
Word study books
Vocabulary games
Cloze Sentences
Word Generations
Full transcript