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The Cold War

Material covered in Western Civilization over the Cold wAr
by

Alex Dickinson

on 11 May 2010

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Transcript of The Cold War

Dawn of the Cold War
Cold War-period of tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union due to opposing goals, distrust, and competition During World War II, Britain, Soviet Union and the U.S. fought together against a common enemy, Nazy Germany After Germany was defeated, distrust between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union grew Only two World Superpowers remained following World War II The U.S. and the Soviet Union competed to become the most powerful country in the world East and West Germany East Germany Capitalism- private ownership
Democracy
Supported by U.S. West Germany Communism-government ownership
Dictatorship
Supported by Soviet Union
NATO The Soviets created a buffer zone, fearing that the Soveit Union wanted to extend that zone into Western Europe several nations joined together The point of NATO was to protect eachother agains the potential of a Soviet attack Original members of Nato-U.S, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg Warsaw Pact The soviet Union viewed Nato as a direct threat The Soviet Union forced several nations to join the Warsaw Pact in order to gain military cohesion Original members of Warsaw Pact-Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, and Romania Containment-Limiting Communism to areas already under Soviet control Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine-stated that the U.S. would resist Soviet expansion throughout the world The U.S. should support people throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures. We must assist free people to work out their own destinies in their own way The U.S. gave 400 million dollars to Turkey and Greece against the threat of Communism Countries who became Communist after World War II North Korea-1945
Poland-1947
Hungary-1947
Czechoslovakia-1948
China-1949
Cuba-1959 Marshall Plan The U.S. helped European countries rebuild. They offered economic assistance and food to the countries. 1948 Postwar hunger and poverty made Communism appealing throughout Europ The Marshal Plan was "European Revery Plan" to reduce the appeal of Communism The Marshall Plan was a doctrine against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos There was 12.5 billion dollars of US aid to western Europe between 1948 and 1952 The Marshall Plan also offered aid to eastern Europ and the Soviet Union. However, Stalin forbid Eastern European countries from receiving aid under the Marshall Plan, promising help from the Soviet Union instead. Germany During the Cold War-Division of Germany After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were combined to form West Germany West Germans were encouraged to rebuild business and industries. They constructed their own constitution and regained self-government The Soviet Union dismantled factories and stripped East Germany fo its natural resources, using them to rebuild Russion. They also installed a communism governmment there. Berlin Blockade Berlin, the German capital, was located wel within the Soviet zone Berlin was divided into West Berlin (France, Britain, U.S.) and East Berlin (Soviet occupied) In 1948, Stalin tried to force the western Allies out of Berlin by shutting down every railroad and highway leading to West Berlin Berlin Airlift As a response to the Berlin Blockade the Western Allies set up an airlift to West Berlin. Cargo planes provided the West Berliners with food and fuel around-the-clock At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily. in may 1949, Stalin ended the blockade Berlin Wall Berlin was the focus of Cold War tensions In the 1950's, West Britain became a shocase for West German prosperity Thousands of low-paid East Germans fled to West Berlin In order to stop East Germans from entering West Berlin, East Germany built the Berlin Wall in 1961 Cold War In China after World War II, civil war between the Nationalists and Communists broke out in China The Nationalists wer led by Chiang Kai-shek
The Communists were led by Mao Zedong The US geve the Chiang Kai-Shek millions of dollars to defeat the Communists, but the communists still won The US was critcal of Communists China, viewed it as a threat, and feared other Asian countries would become communists During the 1950s, China and the Soviet Union became uneasy allies. Korean War After World War II, the Soviet Union and U.S. agreed to divide Korea along the 38th parallel. North Korea was Communists and supported to Soviet Union. South Korea was democratic and supported by the U.S. North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950 The United Nations sent forces into Korea to push the North Koreans out of South Koreans The U.S. feared the U.S. General Douglas MacArthur. Approximately 80% of UN forces wer U.S. soldiers. U.S. forces helped push the North Koreans back across the 38th parallel. As forces continued to push North, China joined the war. The War turned into a stalemate. In 1953 both sides agreed to end fighting, but no peace treaty was negotiated. Vietnam War Vietnam became another hot spot during the Cold War Vietnam was also divided into north and south. North Vietnam was led by Ho Chi Minh. South Vietnam was led by Ngo Dinh Diem. North Vietnam was communist and backed by the Soviets and China.
South Vietnam was non commuist and backed by the U.S. Domino Theory-the U.S. believed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of Southeast Asia would also fall to Communism. By 1968, over half a millinon Americans wer fighting in the Vietnam War. The U.S. relied on the draft for raising troops. Between 1961 and 1973, 60,000 Americans died during the Vietnam war. Over 1.5 million Vietnamese died. Facing atiwar opinion at home, the U.S. agreed to cease fire. Then in 1973, the U.S. began withdrawing troops. The U.S. continued to send billions of dollars supporting vietnam. The war continued for two more years before Vietnam ultimately fel to communism. Cold War in Cuba Folowng the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba in 1959. He set up a Communist government which alarmed the U.S. Castro imposed harsh autoritarian rule and nationalized businesses The U.S. plotted to overthrow Castro and imposed an Embargo on Cuba Bay of Pigs invasion The U.S. backed a plot to train Cuban exiles and overthrow Castro. The invasion force was quickly defeated. The Bay of Pigs Invasion was complete failure for President Kennedy and the U.S. Cuban Missile Crisis Castro sought closer ties with the Soviet Union. The Cold War reached its climax when Castro agreed to allow the Soviets to build nucleur missile bases in Cuba. For several days the U.S. and Soviet Union were on the break of Nucleur War This became known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. The U.S. set up a blockade. The Soviets then agreed to remove their missiles from Cuba if the U.S. removed their missiles from Turkey. The U.S. agreed to this as long as the Soviets didn't tell anyone the U.S. had missiles in Turkey. Competition in the Cold War-Arms Race The U.S. became the first country with nucleur capabilites. The Soveit Union was the second. In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. The U.S. and Soviets became involved in an arms race to develop the world's most powerful weapons. They competed to a develop even more horrifying weapon, the hydrogen bomb. On November 1, 1952, the U.S. explode the fist H-bomb. It completely destroyed the island they launched it on. In August 1953, the Soviets exploded a weapon of similar capabilites Space Race On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launch Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite. America was shocket that the Soviets beat them into space and began pouring more money into their space progam. The U.S. attempted to become the fist country to land on the moon and did so in 1959. This was a year after they launched their fist satellite. Olympic Games The U.S. and the Soviet Union also competed against one another for athletic prestige. This competition resulted in many memorable contests, including the controversial 1972 Gold Medal Basketball Game and the 1980 "Miracle On Ice" Competion between the U.S. and Soviet Union would eventually paly a big role in the collapse of the Soviet Union. De-Stalinization Nikita Khrushchev came to power after Stalin died in 1953. He sought a "peaceful coexistance" with the west. Krushchev denounced Stalin's abuse of power and pursied a policy of detente. Detente's goal was to ease tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union. The Cold War reached its peak durnig Krushchev's reign. He was in power during the Warsaw Pact, Berlin Wall, and Cuban Missile Crisis Krushchev was replace by Lionid Brezhnev who invested in huge military building. Brezhnev Doctrin-stated the Soveit military had a right to interven in any Warsaw Pact nation. In 1979, the Soviet Union fought a war against afghanistan. The war drained the Soveit economy and was unpopular. The Soviet Union was aid to be fighting for religious reasons. Almost every nation supported Afghanistan in the war. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. He was an energetic leader who sought to bring reform to the Soviet Union. He sought to end Cold War tensions and realized the soveits could not continue to outspend the U.S. government. At home Gorbachev adopted to major policies
Glasnot &Perestroika Glasnot-ended censhorship and encouraged open discussion fo the country's problems. Perestroika-decentralization and restructuring of the government and economy Perestroika did not solve the problems of the Soviet economy. Shortages grew worse, prices soared, and unemployment skyrocketed. Critics used the freedom under Glasnot to criticize these reforms. Warsaw pact countries rebelled and in November 1989 the Berlin wall begins to be torn down. The Soviet union is dissolved in 1991 The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Wal" by the communist GDR authorities, implying that neighboring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified.
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