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The French Revolution

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by

Britt Christensen

on 6 May 2016

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Transcript of The French Revolution

"
Ancien regime
"-everyone in France belonged to one of three social classes
Clergy (church leaders and officials)
*Did not pay taxes!
>1% of population
Nobles; top jobs in church and government
*Did not pay taxes!
>1% of population
3rd Estate
PAID TAXES!!!!
The 3rd Estate....
Large portion of the population (98%)
Very diverse group of people
Bourgeoisie-bankers, merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, artisans
Rural peasants-some were landowners, others were tenant farmers (9/10 of estate)
Urban workers-servants, stable hands, construction workers; many unemployed; poorest
Discontent Spreads...
3rd Estate resents the privileges enjoyed by the 1st/2nd Estates
Best jobs saved for nobles
Very low wages
High food prices
Difficult to pay taxes
Peasants could not hunt
(Pre-1789)
WHY should the first two estates have such great privileges at the expense of the majority of the population
Enlightenment
Economic Troubles
Government spent more money than it brings in (deficit spending)
Costly wars
Government spent more money than it brings in (deficit spending)
Government spent more money than it brings in (deficit spending)
Government spent more money than it brings in (deficit spending)
Government spent more money than it brings in (deficit spending)
Louis XIV left France deeply in debt (Palace of Versailles)

Increase taxes
Reduce spending
Louis XIV left France deeply in debt (Palace of Versailles)
Poor harvests; food prices rose dramatically
Riots in towns; homes of nobles attacked in the countryside

Heirs of Louis XIV only added to problems
Increased the debt
Jacques Necker (financial adviser)
Proposed taxing the 1st/2nd estates; 1st/2nd estates forced King Louis XVI to fire him
Forced to call the Estates General in session-
first time in 175 years
Louis XVI:
Throne in 1765-young, unprepared
Shy, indecisive
Married Marie Antoinette in 1770
People of France blamed him for problems
Spent time hunting, throwing parties instead of reforming France
(January-April 1789)
France was nearly bankrupt
Bread riots increased
Nobles feared being taxed so called Louis a "tyrant"
Louis XVI finally called the Estates General in session at Versailles
Cahiers-
list of complaints from the three estates for Louis XVI to read
(May 1789)
Estates General
Members from all three estates
Each estate received one vote (3 votes total)
Tennis Court Oath
Effects
(July 14th, 1789)
Storming of the Bastille
People believed Bastille held weapons, gunpowder
Battle broke out between people, guards
Symbol of the beginning of the French Revolution
July 14th-Bastille Day
"Is it a revolt?"
"No sire, it is a
revolution."
(1789-1791)
National Assembly
Moderate Refrom
(1792-93)
Increasing Violence
(1793-94)
Reign of Terror
(1795-1799)
Directory-moderate reaction to Terror
(1799-1815)
Age of Napoleon

(1789)
(1815)
National Assembly (Moderate Reform)
Nobles ended their privileges
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Women marched on Versailles-demanded King and Queen return to Paris
Catholic Church under state control
New Constitution in 1789-limited monarchy
More efficient government
Equality before the law for male citizens
Increasing Violence
Citizens killed king's guards
Citizens attacked prisons, killed nobles and priests
King and Queen executed
Reign of Terror
Directory
Constitution of 1795
Attempts to refocus the revolution and reduce violence
Rising bread prices and riots
Weak overall
People of France grew tired of violence and revolution-wanted a return of order, stability, and efficiency
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
How would you define the term "revolution?"
In your group, discuss how the event given to you can be described as a revolution.
1) Did the French Revolution occur
BEFORE
or
AFTER
the American Revolution?
3) Who is this?
Louis XVI
6) In France prior to the Revolution, 98% of the population was in the lowest social class. What problems do you think they faced?
The slogan of the revolution was "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
8) This apparatus was used to eliminate enemies of the revolution. What is it called?
9) He took power after the people of France grew tired of the chaos of the Revolution.
Napoleon
Conditions That Cause Revolutions:
1) All social classes are unhappy
3) People are hopeful, but have to accept less
5) Fighting between social classes
7) Government does not respond to needs of society
9) Government loses support
2) Too many restrictions
4) People identify with others in similar situations
6) Loss of faith in society
8) Leaders lose faith and join the opposition
10) Economic issues
Chain of Events (Revolutions):
1) Unhappy groups make impossible demands
3) Revolutionaries gain power
5) Moderates gain leadership but do not do enough
7) Strong individual assumes great power
9) Period of terror
2) Governments cannot control revolutionaries
4) Unity of revolutionaries fades
6) Radical groups take control
8) "Extremists" attempt to create "heaven on earth" and punish opponents
10) Moderate groups regain power
11) Revolution ends
4) What was the name of his wife?
5) The palace built by Louis VIX; the home of the royal family
2) The French Revolution began in this year.
10) In 1803, Napoleon sold land in North America to the United States. What is this known as historically and who was the President at the time?
Define the words "liberty" and "fraternity."
1st Estate
2nd Estate
Bourgeoisie
-middle class
Rural peasants
-9/10
Urban workers
-poorest
The Big Question...
Possible Solutions
Or Both....
Failure of Reform:
3rd Estate was almost always outvoted
Cause:
3rd Estate wanted each individual in the Estates General to have a vote
1st and 2nd Estate locked the 3rd Estate out of the meeting hall, so they met on an indoor tennis court
3rd Estate called themselves the
National Assembly
Oath was a promise to create a new constitution for France, extending rights to more citizens
Louis XVI stationed troops in France and the people felt they were being watched (atmosphere of suspicion)
Committee of Public Safety
Similar to a police force (COPS); addressed people and situations threatening the success of the Revolution
Led by Maximilien Robespierre
40,000 people died, most at the guillotine
Ended when people grew tired of the violence and living in fear of being labeled an enemy of the Revolution
Full transcript