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Copy of AP Bio- Evolution 3: Evidence of Evolution
Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Evolution 3: Evidence of Evolution
Evolution Evolution is "so overwhelmingly established that it has become irrational to call it a theory."
-- Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Fossil
Layers of sedimentary rock contain fossils.
New layers cover older ones, creating a record over time.
Fossils can be dated using radioactive decay
The fossil record shows that a succession of organisms have populated Earth throughout a long period of time.
Support (proof?) for a VERY old Earth. Homologous structures: (same shape)
Similarities in characteristics resulting from common ancestry
Similar structure, similar development, different functions
Evidence of close evolutionary relationship (recent common ancestor) Comparing DNA & protein structure.
Life uses a universal genetic code!
All organisms use DNA as their genetic material.
The code used by ALL ribosomes is universal. A bacterium can make a human protein if given the proper recipe. Artificial selection (aka "selective breeding") can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties”.
This has been used by humans for livestock and crop production since before recorded history Biogeography Observed
Evolution Insecticide & drug resistance:
Insecticide doesn’t kill all individuals.
Resistant survivors reproduce.
Resistance is inherited.
Insecticide becomes less & less effective Time to clean up a few more misconceptions about evolution!
The Complexity Fallacy:
Evolution is not goal-oriented ("teleology").
An evolutionary trend does not mean that evolution is goal-oriented.
Surviving species do not represent the peak of perfection.
Evolution can only work on what is present. There is a lot of "jerry rigging" & compromise in evolved physiology. A Related Aside Vestigial organs:
Structures that serve little or no function.
Remnants of structures that were functional in ancestral species
DNA was never 'lost' so code for the structure remains Analogous structures: (same function)
Similarities in adaptations resulting from similar evolutionary pressures. (same type of trait selected FOR)
Different structures, different development, similar functions
Evidence of Convergent evolution Comparative embryology:
Similar embryological development in closely related species.
All vertebrate embryos have similar structures at different stages of development Building “family” trees:
Closely related species (branches) share the same line of descent until their divergence from a common ancestor. As this happens, genetic differences accumulate.
Fewer differences in DNA/protein sequences = more recently diverged. Genome sequencing:
What can whole genome sequence data tell us about evolution of humans?
Primate Common Ancestry? The original evidence that informed Darwin & Wallace.
Organisms found in a particular area tend to be more closely related to eachother than they are to organisms found in other areas. Peppered Moths:
Dark vs. light variants
What was the selection factor?
Early 1800s = pre-industrial England
lichen growing on trees = light colored bark
Late 1800s = industrial England
factories = soot coated trees
killed lichen = dark colored bark
Mid 1900s = pollution controls
clean air laws
return of lichen = light colored bar "Intelligent Design"
The belief that life is too complex to have evolved without the intervention of an "intelligent designer".
Who can say? Certainly not science (Why not?)
BUT...if we assume a designer, it seems pretty lazy (or maybe just really mean).
There is a whole lot of "unintelligent design" in life. Suggesting that whatever drives evolution doesn't care about aesthetics, elegance, or anything other than "whatever works". The Flying Spaghetti Monster Why We Think It Didn't Go Down Like This Big Questions Make Sure You Can How Science
Works The major ways science differs from other modes of thought:
Evidence- All ideas are not created scientifically equal. Evidence is required. Spectacular claims require spectacular evidence
Falsifiability- Scientific thoughts can NEVER BE PROVEN (only supported). Scientific thoughts can be disproven easily (happens all the time) Hypotheses vs. Theories vs. Laws:
Hypothesis: A Testable statement about the universe.
Theory: A major unifying framework, supported by all evidence currently known; an explanation of evidence
Law: A deduced fact that will always hold true if given certain conditions (not typically used in Biology).
"It's just a theory": Hallmark of the scientifically illiterate Tiktaalik: a transition fossil between fish and amphibians Archaeopteryx: Dinosaurs to Birds "Lucy": an Australopithecus Transitional Fossils:
Show evolutionary links between groups of organisms A fossilized flower from the Eocene (~50mya) Analysis of fossilized ankle bones places cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises) in a lineage with other even-toed ungulates A Geological History of the Earth 1996 1956 Any Questions? Homology in the tetrapod limb plan Homology in insect head anatomy Homology in Great Ape Skeletons: People used to think whales were fish!
The Fools! (Closer to "legless Hippos") I am not a fish! Look familar? Homology informs Phylogeny Convergence in Human and Octopus Eye Wings have evolved multiple times (flying is a good niche) They look similar because they both swim fast Human Eye (Blind spot) Octopus Eye (no blind spot) Insect Pterosaur Bird Bat Flipper Jaws The controversial human appendix Useless Goosebumps Notice Anything in common? Map of human genome Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes Fancy Pigeon breeding was the Pokemon of 19th century Europe Native Americans bred Teosinte into Corn Phylogeny of Domesticated Dogs & Cats Demonstration of variation in domesticated species Map of Biogeographical Zones Convergence in Squirrel like mammals There are many dead branches on the "Tree of Life" It sucks when your mating call is someone else's dinner bell Living Like A Colonial Insect Works for Me! Once upon a time I had eyes... (Naked Mole Rat) (Cave Fish) Life destroying asteroids are known to show up from time to time! If I was designing a heart, I'd give blood more than one route through it Choking to death? Blame Evolution! Is this what "Intelligent" Design Looks Like? DNA Mapping Protein sequence comparrison Why is evolution a scientific theory?
How does evidence from multiple scientific disciplines and domains support the modern theory of evolution?
Explain why evolution is a product of the scientific process.
Explain how each area of evidence described in this presentation lends support to the modern theory of evolution, and provide examples from each area.
Describe why the critiques of evolution discussed in this presentation (teleology and intelligent design) are examples of 'non-scientific' reasoning. It doesn't happen like this Morphology Biochemistry