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Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
Transcript of Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
Sex cells form in the reproductive organs Sexual Reproduction Vocabulary Eggs- haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs
Sperm- haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs
Fertilization- in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
Zygote- new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism Diploid and Haploid Cells The body forms two types of cells
body cells and sex cells
There are many more body cells than sex cells
Diploid- cell whose chromosomes occur in pairs
Haploid- cell that has only one of each type of chromosome Meiosis & Sex Cells Steps have the same name as mitosis, but are numbered Reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell
ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organism Most animals cannot survive with a double number of chromosomes During meiosis, two divisions of the nucleus will occur Meiosis I Before meiosis chromosomes duplicate and are visible under a microscope as two chromatid Prophase I- each duplicate chromosome comes near its similar duplicated mate Metaphase I- pairs of chromatid line up in the center of the cell Telophase I- cytoplasm divides and 2 new cells form Anaphase I- centromere of each chromatid attach to spindle fibers, chromatid move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell Meiosis II Two cells begin meiosis II
Chromatid of each duplicated chromosomes are separated by the end of division Prophase II- Chromosomes and spindle fibers appear Metaphase II- The chromosomes move to the center of the cell an centromere attach to 2 spindle fibers Telophase II- Spindle fibers disappear and a nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes at at each end of the cell Anaphase II- Centromere divide and chromatid move to opposite ends of the cell Meiosis Recap 1 Cell results in 4 cells through 2 divisions
Form from a human cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes Mistakes in Meiosis Mistakes in plants are common but less likely in animals
Can produce sex cells with too many or too few chromosomes
Organisms with the wrong number of chromosomes may not grow normally Sexual Reproduction & Meiosis