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elements of curriculum

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jean ong

on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of elements of curriculum

Curriculum Content
Curriculum Experiences
Curriculum Intent
ELEMENTS OF
CURRICULUM

Curriculum Evaluation
GOALS
OBJECTIVES
– specific learning
outcomes; basis for instructions
1987 Philippine Constitution
R.A. 232 - Education Act of 1982
Aims of Elementary Education
Section 21
Aims of Secondary Education
Section 22
Aims of Tertiary Education
Section 23
- Topics to be learned/covered

Instructional strategies: activities, methods, and approaches to teach contents
-To check if
intents were realized
primary
secondary
tertiary
The Philippine educational system is divided into 3 educational levels:
AIMS
– broad statements of social or educational expectations; what is hoped to be achieved
–general statements of concepts, values, and skills to be learned
a clear concept of what the institution would like to become in the future
can be very ambitious but that is a characteristic of a vision
School's Vision -

spells out how it intends to carry out its Vision
targets to produce the kind of persons the students will become after having been educated over a certain period of time
School's Mission
A model performing high school where students are equipped with knowledge, skills and strength of character to realize their potential to the fullest
Example of School's Vision
-

To produce globally competitive lifelong learners.
Example of School's Mission
Example of school Goals:
Build a strong foundation of skills and concepts
Efficient and effective administration responsive of the needs of the university and community
Benjamin Bloom
and
Robert Mager
defined educational objectives in 2 ways:

explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process, and
intent communicated by statement describing a proposed change in learners
knowledge, comprehension, application,
analysis, synthesis, evaluation
Cognitive Domain
(Bloom et al 1956) domain of thought process
receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization
Affective Domain
(Krathwohl, 1964) - domain of valuing and appreciation
Psychomotor Domain
(Simpson, 1972) - domain of the use of psychomotor attributes
perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, origination
Gerome Bruner:

“Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience”
subject matter or learning content for basic education
Principles to follow in organizing learning contents (Palma, 1992)
Balance
Continuity
Articulation
Integration
Sequence
Instructional strategies and methods

will link to curriculum experiences, the core and heart of the curriculum.
will put into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome.
will convert the written curriculum to instruction
Some guides for the selection and use of teaching strategies-


1. teaching methods are means to achieve the end

2. there is no single best teaching method

3. teaching methods should stimulate the learner’s desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual

4. in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered

5. every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains

6. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods
Curriculum Evaluation -
To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. (Worthen and Sanders, 1987)
refers to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and product of the curriculum
meeting the goals and matching them with the intended outcomes (Tuckman, 1985 )
Stufflebeam's CIPP Model
the most widely used model in curriculum evaluation
The process in CIPP model is continuous and very important to curriculum managers.

CIPP Model –
Context
(environment of curriculum),
Input
(ingredients of curriculum),
Process
(ways and means of implementing),
Product
accomplishment of goals)- process is continuous.

Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize, a suggested plan of action for the process of curriculum evaluation is introduced. These are the steps:
1.
Focus
on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area, the grade level, the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evaluation.
2.
Collect
or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed regarding the object of evaluation.
3.
Organize
the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing and retrieving data for interpretation.
4.
Analyze
information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized.
5.
Report
the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specific audiences. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or informally through round table discussion and conversations.
6.
Recycle
the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustments to be made.
Curriculum Intent
(aims, goals, objectives)
Curriculum Content/
Subject Matter
Curriculum Experience
(Methods/
Strategies)
Curriculum Evaluation
In summary, the components/elements of a curriculum are distinct but are interrelated to each other.
Interrelationship of the Components/Elements of a Curriculum
Aims, goals and objectives
Criteria for selecting content for a curriculum
significance
validity
utility
learnability
feasability
self-sufficiency
Subject-centered
view of curriculum
Learner-centered
view of curriculum
Legal bases
Based on the 1987 Philippine Constitution, all schools shall aim to:
Inculcate patriotism and nationalism;
Foster love of humanity;
Promote respect for human rights;
Appreciate the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country;
Teach the rights and duties of citizenship;
Strengthen ethical and spiritual values;
Develop moral character and personal discipline;
Encourage critical and creative thinking; and
Broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency
Aims of Elementary Education
Provide knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society;
Provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in the society
Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and
Promote work experiences which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work.

Aims of Secondary Education
Continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and

Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavor and or to prepare them for tertiary schooling.

Aims of Tertiary Education
Provide general education programs which will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor;
Train the nation’s manpower in the skills required for national development
Develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and
Advance knowledge through research and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and respond effectively to changing society.

EdM 402- Advance Curriculum Development

Jean I. Ong
MA-EM
Professor: Dr. Mila D. Vela

Reference:
Curriculum Development by
Purita P. Bilbao. et.al,
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