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Caroline Tanner

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of soils

Lichens - algae and fungi
Mycorrhizae - plant roots and fungi
Endomycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal
Can increase effective root surface area by 700-1000X

Endophytes - above ground plant structures and fungi
All tested plants have at least one associated endophytic fungi
Mostly asymptomatic
Soil: Life on the Rocks
Carrie Tanner
Photo courtesy of C.Frey
Teaching and Advising Philosophy:
Aspiring to more than an educator
An Educator and Facilitator
Technology offers growing accessibility to information

Important to get skills and experiences not offered otherwise

Connections to other knowledgeable professionals

Encourage extracurricular for hands-on experience
Hands-on, Application Based Approach
Can appeal to auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners

Few chances to
material in an inquisitive setting

Opportunity to connect to personal interests
Students are more invested in learning process

Crucial to this position
Reaching All Students
Reach all students from diverse backgrounds

Work in applications of information and current events

Give students some creative license
Innovative Teaching Methods
Student Assessment
Tests: Standardized learning, individual knowledge

Group work: Peer-to-peer learning

Individual projects: Application of interests, creative outlet

Attendance: Indicator of effort
Goals for Students
An Opportunity for
Professional Growth
1. Gain hands-on experiences

2. See the "big picture"

3. Connect to other disciplines
Act as ambassador of knowledge

Stay current with research and science community

Interested in scholarship of teaching and teaching pedagogy
Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles
Tiny, one-celled organisms
Great diversity and prevalence

Four main types:
- consume simple carbon compounds
- form relationships with plants
- cause damage to plants
- gain energy from sulfur, nitrogen, iron, or hydrogen compounds
More genetically related to plants and animals than bacteria
Initially thought to only live in extreme conditions
Found to live in most soils
What are they?
How do they affect each other?
How do they affect the soil?
Courtesy of NRCS Soil Biology Primer
Bacteria Effects on Soil
Element Cycling
Carbon - cycled from organic matter to carbon dioxide during decay
Nitrogen - crucial to nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification
Sulfur - sulfur-oxidizing make plant-available water soluble sulfates
Archaea Effects on Soil
Play a role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen
Most abundant ammonia oxidizers in soil

Break down organic and inorganic materials
Release sulfur, nitrogen, and methane
Grow from spores into hyphae or thread-like structures
Masses of hyphae form mycelia
Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of fungi
Fungi Effects on Soil
Mycorrhizal fungi free up copper, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron

Primary decay agents in soils - break down lignin, cellulose, chitin, bone

Hyphae find phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, nitrogen

Nitrogen available from fungi wastes or decay
Three types:
Most are heterotrophs - eat mainly bacteria
Symbiotic Relationships
Termite digestion - flagellates digest cellulose, bacteria fix nitrogen for flagellates
Protozoa Effects on Soil
Population control
Prey on bacteria
Some eat nematodes
Some compete for resources with nematodes
Mineralization of nutrients
Bacteria and fungi wastes - free up immobilized nutrients
As much as 80% of nitrogen that plants use come from protozoa wastes
Blind round worms the size of a hair
40-50 per tsp of soil
Specialized by diet
Plant material
Predators (protozoa, grubs, weevils, slugs)
Nematodes Effects on Soil
Mineralization of nutrients
Mineralize nutrients that were immobilized in bacteria and fungi

Bacteria taxi
Offer larger mobility to attached bacteria
Shredders - shred up organic matter on surface soil
Mites and springtails shred up to 30% of leaf litter

Predators - eat other members of food web
Most diverse group - 3/4 of all living organisms are arthropods

Included flies, beetles, spiders, springtails, mites, centipedes, etc.

Segmented bodies
Chitin exoskeletons

Arthropods in the Soil
Earthworms in the Soil
Master shredders
Make organic matter (OM) more accessible to other microorganisms
50% higher in OM
Generally enhances aggregate stability
Digestive enzymes break chemical bonds, releasing plant available nutrients
Increases porosity
Mixes surface and subsurface OM
Increase water holding capacity
Offer food to other soil members

Indicators of soil populations
Birds - arthropods, worms

Burrowing animals mix OM, increase porosity
The affairs of the soil may not have the strange magnificence of the outer universe or the curiosity of the inner recesses of the atom, but they touch our daily lives most intimately.

-Gilbert W. Robinson
Nutrient Retention - immobilize nutrients in their biomass

Decay of Cellulose
Actinomycetes decay cellulose and chitin
Bacteria Effects on Soil
Eat primarily detritus, organic matter, and bacteria
Ecosystem engineers
Ingest soil 2-30X body weight/day
Move vertically or horizontally
Types of fungi:
Saprophytic fungi - break down dead or decaying organic matter into biomass
Parasitic and pathogenic fungi - prey on living plants
Symbiotic fungi - form relationships with other soil flora and fauna
Buried soil cloth activity
Adding design and arts education to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics emphasis
Promotes innovation and creative problem solving

National Science Foundation sponsored a workshop in 2011 to explore programs incorporating STEAM
Image copyright Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Courtesy Mycorrihizal Applications, www.myrhizae.com
Courtesy American Phytopathological Society, www.apsnet.org
Image copyright Dennis Kunkel, Microscopy, Inc.
Image copyright Dennis Kunkel, Microscopy, Inc.
Image copyright Dennis Kunkel, Microscopy, Inc.
Image copyright Dennis Kunkel, Microscopy, Inc.
Photograph by Bruce Jaffee, UC Davis
Photograph by Michael W. Davidson, Florida State University
Courtesy USDA-NRCS
Courtesy of C. Frey
Courtesy of R.R.Janke
Courtesy of R.R.Janke
Courtesy of R.R.Janke
Brady, N. and R. Weil. 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Edition. Person Prentice Hall: Columbus.

Lowenfels, J. and W. Lewis. 2010.
Teaming with Microbes The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web.
Timber Press: Portland.

Tugel, A.J., A.M. Lewandowski, eds. (February 2001).
Soil Biology Primer
[online]. Available: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053860 [1 Dec 2013].
Academic History
B.S. University of Missouri
Magna Cum Laude
May 2011
Participated in Soil Judging, Environmental Science Club, Sustain Mizzou, School of Natural Resources Science Society, and SNR Peer Mentors
Employed by and conducted research in the Soil Chemistry and Limnology Labs
Master's Research
Designed, raised funds for, implemented, and analyzed research project

Evaluating the Interaction Between Urban Farmers and Extension Educators in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

Defending in early January
Masters candidate for Kansas State University's Horticulture program

One of the first students to complete their new program in Urban Food Systems
Since Leaving Mizzou
Skills and Knowledge Gained
Teaching experience
TA for two courses
Designing and implementing research projects
Grant writing
$10,000 grant from SARE
Greater plant knowledge and experience
Survey and interview methods
Working with standardized survey methods and NVivo software

Teaching Experience
Taught lab sections for two courses:
Vegetable Crop Production
Organic Agriculture
Prepared lectures and activities, led group discussions, oversaw group experiments, coordinated guest speakers, and proctored exams
Learning Objectives:
1.Recognize different types of soil organisms
2.Explain how these organisms affect chemical and physical soil processes
3.Give an example of a single food chain within the soil food web
Photo by George L. Barron, University of Guelph
We have a responsibility not only to develop cutting-edge knowledge that benefits everyone but also to prepare students to thrive as citizens in our society.
- Brady Deaton
Former Chancellor of Mizzou
Arthrobotrys anchonia
Properties of Soils. Pg 478
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