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Transcript of Psychodynamic Theory
If a child develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world.
However, if a caregiver is inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting of the child, the child could develop fear and think that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. The psychoanalytic approach also stresses that:
-nearly all behavior has an unconscious cause.
-the human race has a collective unconscious.
-the most important time in life is during childhood development (due to the psychosexual stages). Important Event: toilet training Stage 2 : Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt Takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. Controlling of one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and even a sense of independence. Other important events include: gaining more control over food choices, choosing toys, and even choosing clothing. Successful completion of this stage leads to kids who are secure and confident while those who are not successful in this stage may feel self-doubt. Important events: Exploration Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool years Children begin to test out control and power through directly playing. A child who is successful at this stage will feel capable and able to lead others. A child who fails at this level will be left feeling guilt, self-doubt, and a lack of initiative. Important events: Schooling Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority children develop and start to become proud of their accomplishments. Kids who are encouraged and praised by teachers and parents develop belief and competence of their skills. Those who received little praise or encouragement will doubt their abilities to be successful. If proper encouragement is given as a result of personal exploration a child could emerge with a strong sense of desires, a strong sense of self, and a feeling of independence. Stage 5: Identity vs Confusion Important events: social relationships Children start to explore independence and a sense of self. HOWEVER, Those who become unsure of their beliefs and desires may feel insecure and confused about themselves and the future. Erikson believed it to be vital that people develop personal and committed relationships. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Important Events: Relationships Early Adulthood. Exploring personal relationships If one was successful with this, they would become committed and secure in their relationships. Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation Important events: Work/career and parenthood Adulthood Continuing to develop lives, career, and family Success during this stage will result in an individual that feels he/she is contributing to the world by being active in the home and community. Failuring during this stage will result in a person who feels unproductive and uninvolved in the world old age Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair Important Event: Reflection on life. Failure during this stage will result in one feeling like their life has been wasted. This person will most likely experience many regrets. Also, one may be bitter about their life. Success during this stage will leave one feeling integrity while successfully looking back on their lives with very few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. This person will even attain wisdom, even when confronting death. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician in the 1900's. He developed the psychoanalytic theory- the theory that unconscious forces were what determined people's actions and personality. He is considered the most important pioneer of the psychodynamic approach. Freud believed that personality was made up of the id, ego and superego. These three components were separate but they worked together to form a whole personality. Freud's Structure of Personality The id, ego and superego represent abstract ideas for a general model of personality- they are not physically part of the nervous system. Nervous System Id:
this part of the personality is raw uninhibited and inborn. its supposed to relive the tension that is caused by hunger, anger, sex, etc. The Unconscious: the part of personality that is composed of memories, knowledge, urges, beliefs and instincts- all of which we are not aware of. personality id ego s.ego Ego: serves as the balance between the id and the superego. Superego:
it is the final structure of the personality to develop- it represents the rights and wrongs of society that are handed down from parents, teachers and people of influence (its the angel on your shoulder). Psychosexual Stages: -these are the stages of development that a child must complete in order to become healthy, functioning adults. If they do not pass these stages successfully, they will develop fixations. Fixations:
conflicts that an individual may experience after the developmental stage where they first occurred. Oral Stage: occurs between 12-18 months; the pleasure center is the mouth. 12-18 months to 3 years; satisfaction comes from holding and expelling bodily wastes. the toddler is coming to terms with societal controls regarding toilet training. Anal Stage: Phallic Stage:
3 months to 5-6 years; at this point, the child will become interested in his or her genitals and they will be coming to terms with the Oedipal conflict . The Oedipus Conflict: when a child develops a sexual interest in his/her opposite sex parent. this conflict is resolved through the child's identification with their same sex parent. Latency Stage:
5-6 years to adolescence; the child loses sexual interests. Genital Stage:
this is when sexual interests reemerge and healthy, sexual relationships are cultivated. Defense Mechanisms: the theory that people deploy unconscious defenses to shield themselves from anxiety. Repression
Reaction Formation Criticisms: Freud's views and theories were deemed sexist as they often supported masculine dominance (like in penis envy during the psychosexual stages). Only a small group of people were represented by Freud's studies. The vague nature of his views make them nearly impossible to test. The psychoanalytic approach also stresses:
-the importance of childhood development.
-the idea of a universal consciousness.
-the theory of the unconscious mind and how it motivates our actions. Criticisms Criticism on
Psychodynamic Theory -The main theory created by Freud was based off of results found when speaking with/testing mainly middle aged women.
-Most of the theory is derived from research with specific patients with mental illnesses or problems
-It is nearly impossible to generalize the theory to all individuals due to the specificity of the patients. It is nearly impossible to get the same results due to the uniqueness of every patient
Since it's based around dreams, it cannot be consistent from one person to another Inconsistency - His need to differ from Freud limits his objectiveness on human selfishness and destructiveness
-He underplays biological, chemical, and genetic components of mental illness Criticism of Erikson -Highly subjective and its ideas are hard to test scientifically
-Deterministic (little free will)
-Difficult to prove wrong General Criticisms
and Limitations -The concepts of Jungian theory are difficult to define, and very speculative
-Difficult to yield specific hypotheses that can be tested against Criticisms of Jung Swiss psychologist born in 1875
knew Freud; was chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association
founder of analytical psychology
previously mostly viewed philosophically, but now more psychological interest in his theories Carl Jung Normal behavior: all obstacles were overcome at each stage of development, allowing natural maturing and the development of life skills
The roots of mental disorders are psychological
They lie in the unconscious mind and are the failure of defense mechanisms to protect the self (or ego) from anxiety
Change an aspect of one’s identity or personality or integrate key developmental learning missed while the client was stuck at an earlier stage of emotional development.
Some changes can happen through a more rapid process or an initial short intervention will start an ongoing process of change that does not need the constant involvement of the therapist
Abnormal and Normal Behavior Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams attracted public interest in his theory
He was not the first person to suggest that dreams have a meaning
He related it to his broader theory of mental processes and behavior, by invoking the concept of a dream censor whose function is to hide the true meaning of the dream from the person's conscious mind.
Some physiological researchers arguing that dreams are simply an artifact of brain activity during sleep Freud and Dream Analysis Ex. A patient presenting anxiety symptoms would be encouraged to explore his past in order to discover problems occurring during one of the developmental stages Born on June 15, 1902 Biography Pursued his interest in art in Florence. Main interest was always in identity. Was a product of an extramarital union which was hidden to him for most of his young life. When he was a young boy, he was always teased for being "nordic" (i.e. tall, blonde, and blue-eyed) Then, he was later teased for being Jewish. These could have been a contributing factor with his interest in identity. After studying art, he got a job at a school that was run by Dorothy Burlingham; a friend of Anna Freud's. Erikson eventually became Anna Freud's patient.
Moved to the United States in 1933 and was offered a job teaching at Harvard Medical School. Erikson even had his own private practice in child psychoanalysis.
Went on to work for other schools as well. Such as, the University of California - Berkley, Yale, the San Francisco psychoanalytic institute, and the Austin Riggs Center. individuation
personal v. collective unconscious
introversion v. extroversion Main Theories Personal Unconscious Conscious:
- organized by ego - repressed, traumatic memories
- forgotten, unimportant events
- unique to the individual - universal, deeper than the personal unconscious
- genetically/biologically passed on
- all human collective memory, pre-evolution animal memory
- shared across culture and time period Collective Unconscious - structures of the collective unconscious
- Inherited ways of viewing the world- shared images located in the collective unconscious
- figures such as: the trickster, primordial mother, etc. Archetypes Major Structures of Personality ego: center of consciousness, protects consciousness, directs actions persona: how one presents self to the world The ego often starts to identify as the persona shadow: repressed memories, conflicts with persona, negative aspects of self
must be acknowledged and accepted anima/animus: all opposite-sex related information, sorts things as feminine or masculine, ideal image of "man"/"woman" self:
the unconscious and conscious functioning in harmony Individuation Becoming one in oneself, a "whole" person, reconciling all parts of the psyche. Introversion v. Extroversion Introvert: tends to be inwardly focused on their own thoughts, happy alone, reflective, less social, less confident
Extravert: tends to be outwardly focused on those around them, happy with others, not self-reflective, does not self-analyze Functions Feeling: focus on value, right vs. wrong
Thinking: objective analysis
Sensation: focus on that which is accessible directly via senses
Intuition: thinking less concretely, more abstractly