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LAI474 DisAbilities Presentations - Autism

Discussion Questions: Were you affected by any of the personal stories in the videos? Did they make you think about Autism in a different way? What do you think about the teaching strategies?

Allison Boyer

on 7 February 2013

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Transcript of LAI474 DisAbilities Presentations - Autism

Disabilities Presentation: Autism Learning Characteristics What is Autism? •Attention difficulties Use visual supports: They can attract and hold a student’s attention, make abstract concepts more concrete, and they help ALL students, so using them in inclusive classrooms allows you to reach every student at once.
Teach cause and effect concepts [e.g. When….Then]
Use direct instruction to teach multiple meaning words and idioms.
Children with autism may have difficulty processing the meaning of requests, whether visual or auditory. Make sure to gain student’s attention before giving brief concrete instructions. Allow for pauses to give time for a child with autism to determine an appropriate response.
Careful observation of the environment from the child’s eyes can help identify distracting elements that may be easily remedied by changing the child’s seating arrangement or by removing or modifying the distraction. Allowing children with autism to have “breaks” to meet their sensory needs can often help improve attention. Social Characteristics Often fail to develop typical peer relationships
Sometimes lack interest in making friends, other times lack the social skills necessary to make or maintain a friendship
Have trouble initiating, responding to and sustaining interactions with peers
Can functionally play with toys, but usually lack “imaginary” or “symbolic” play
Social-Emotional Development: the ability to read emotional states in oneself and others. Children with Autism may not have the strategies or know how to react to certain emotional states in themselves and in others.

Children with Autism still recognize support and can develop close relationships, regardless of social lacking. Behavioral Characteristics Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by the presence of extremely challenging behaviors, including:
Repetitive motor behaviors (hand flapping, body rocking)
Insistence on sameness
Resistance to change
In some cases, aggression or self-injury

There is no single behavior that is always typical of autism and no behavior that would automatically exclude an individual child from a diagnosis of autism, even though there are strong and consistent commonalities, especially in social deficits. Autism is one of a group of serious developmental problems called autism spectrum disorders that appear in early childhood — usually before age 3. Though symptoms and severity vary, all autism spectrum disorders affect a child's ability to communicate and interact with others.

The number of children diagnosed with autism appears to be rising. It's not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting of autism or a real increase in the number of cases or both. Effective Research-Based Teaching Strategies The Real Faces of Autism Closing Activity Here is a fun and insightful closing activity to help show you how people with autism are bothered by most things people don't notice.
People with autism are often extra sensitive to noise, movement and even things like background
noises most of us don’t notice. Remember, not everyone with autism has these problems.

Divide the class into groups of 5. Explain that they will each have a job to do. Go over their jobs,
and tell them they will start when you give the signal.
One student in each group will play the part of someone with autism. The other 4 people each have different jobs:

Person #1 - You will play the part of a person with autism. Your job is to try and listen to what Person #5 is reading to you
so you can take a test on the material. Try to ignore everyone else.

Person #2 - Stand behind the student playing the part of someone with autism. Rub the edge of an index card (or piece of cardboard)
against the back of their neck. You do not need to rub hard, but keep doing it over and over.

Person #3 - Grab a book (any book will do), lean close to Person #1 and read in a loud voice the entire time.

Person #4 - Pat Person #1 on the head and shoulder the entire time.

Person #5 - Using a normal voice, read a paragraph to Person #1 then ask them questions
about what you read. Do NOT try to drown out the other noises.

Have all the students take a turn being Person #1 before you discuss it.
How did it feel to have so much commotion going on? Did it make them want to scream or get away?
Were they able to concentrate on the paragraph being read? What might have helped? To understand how children with autism learn, one must be cognizant of the core deficits that define autism and impede the development of the fundamental prerequisite skills essential for learning. Some unique learning characteristics of students with autism may include, but are not limited to: •Difficulties with time concepts and making transitions •Problems with organization and planning •Uneven patterns of strengths and weaknesses •Difficulties with learning by observation and imitation •Troubles with task/event sequencing •The inability to generalize (easily transfer knowledge from one setting to another) •Auditory processing impairments Allison Boyer, Elizabeth Andrade, Entasar Saif Sources Adcock, B. & Remus M.L. (2006.) Disability Awareness Activity Packet [Activity Packet]. Phoenix, AZ: Possibilities, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.dvusd.org/docs/edservices/Disability_Awareness.pdf

Autism Science Foundation. (2012). What is autism?. Retrieved from http://autismsciencefoundation.org/what-is-autism

Autism Society. (n.d.). Autism society - causes. Retrieved from http://www.autism-society.org/ about-autism/causes/

Autism Society. (2001). How students with autism learn. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/ reference/article/Ref_2006_pdf_Article4/

The Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Binghamton University. (n.d.). Social deficits associated with autism. Retrieved from http://casd.binghamton.edu/node/15

Haring Center for Applied Research & Training in Education. (n.d.). Autism 101
[Online Course]. Retrieved from URL http://depts.washington.edu/pdacent/courses/autism101/1.php

Harris, A. (2010). Visual supports for students with autism. Special Education Journal, Retrieved from http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/Journals/specialedjournal/Harris

I-care autism facts and information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.icareinfo.org/Autism/ autism.html

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, October 6). Autism. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ autism/DS00348
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