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Interwar period 1918-1939
Transcript of Interwar period 1918-1939
The first monarch to fall was Czar Nicolas II of Russia in 1917.
Kaiser Wilhem II of Germany and Emperor Charles of Austria-Hungary left their thrones in 1918.
The collapse of old empires led to the creation of new countries
Austria-Hungary formed the independent republics of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, as well as parts of Italy, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.
Russia and Germany gave up territory to Poland.
Finland and the Baltic States- Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania- gained independence from Russia.
Most Arab lands in the Ottoman Empire were placed under the control of Britain and France, the rest of the Ottoman Empire became Turkey. Activity In groups of two or three, survey the political and economic situation in the major countries in the postwar years:
The war has just ended. Your country has participated in WWI. How will you help rebuild your homeland? What are your hopes? Your wishes? Your claims? How do you foresee its future?
Get ready for debate! II. POSTWAR DEMOCRACIES What was the economic situation like in the major victorious Western democracies after WWI?
What problems did democracy face in Germany after WWI?
How did the political situation in eastern Europe and Japan change after the war? 1918-1939 III. Society and culture between the wars New views of society Wilson's position was non violent and focused on giving independence to nations and maintain peace in Europe. David Lloyd George of Great Britain wanted moderate punishment for Germany so he would win support and votes of all people of Britain in the next election.
It was also a matter of territorial gain (Cf. Mandate system) Imposed upon Germany by the Triple Entente, it officially ended the war
Turkey, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Russia, were excluded from the discussion.
Signed by Germany on June 28, 1919 Provisions:
limit its army to 100,000 men.
give up its colonial possessions.
allow the Rhineland to be occupied for 15 years.
pay reparations to the winning side.
accept full responsibility for the war.
Germany was forced to sign if it wished to remain a unified country.
Resulted in the creation of the League of Nations.
The Versailles Peace settlement (also known as the DIKTAT) became an underlying cause for the next World War. Europe
nowadays Can you spot the differences?? Loss of Power & Land Distribution European leaders took national groups into account in redrawing the map of Europe, this strengthened nationalism. Compare then & now 1914 Europe in 1920 Entertainment for the millions The power of the radio Mercury Theater on the Air
by Orson Welles "The war of the world" http://archive.org/details/OrsonWelles-MercuryTheater-1938Recordings 1. The Western Democracies 2. The Weimar Republic 3. Challenges to Democracy THE
PERIOD I. The end and the consequences of WWI Germany has to bear it all... Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Point Plan (January 1918)
1. Open Diplomacy
2. Freedom of Navigation
3. Free trade
4. Multilateral disarmament
5. Self-determination of national groups- the right to independence and self-determination
6. Russia free to use any government they want- army to be removed from Russia
7. Belgium will be independent
8. France can recover Alsace-Lorraine
9. Italians can live in Italy as a defined nation
10. Self- determination for Austria-Hungary
11. Independence and self-determination for Balkan States
12. Turkish people governed by Turkish government; non-Turks govern themselves
13. Independence for Poland with access to the sea
14. League of Nations established to guarantee political and territorial independence of all states The ground for WWII A. The aspiration of the US President b. the end of WWI 1. RUSSIA
Russian exited the war after the events of the October Revolution.
On March 3rd, 1918, Russia accepted the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, surrending vast territories including Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine, Finland and Caucasia. 2. The USA
After German's attacks on US ships, American troops arrived in significant numbers on the Western Front.
On November 11, 1918, the leaders of a new German Republic (Kaiser William II had abdicated in response to people's protest) agreed to Allied terms for an armistice, the ending of hostilities until a formal treaty could be completed. THE ARMISTICE
The unconditional surrender of Germany was signed in a railway car in the French forest of Compiègnes.
WWI had finally ended. C. Paris Peace Conference of 1919 1. The big "FOUR" Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America
Georges Clémenceau, President of France
David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Great Britain
Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando Big Four position Georges Clémenceau of France advocated for punishment of enemies and policing to prevent aggression.
New States resulting from the war supported Clemenceau's idea of punishing Germany, Austria-Hungary and others enemy powers.
They felt nationalism for their new country and hatred to the old powers V. The Great Depression The coming of the Global depression The spread of the Depression Reactions in the Western Democracies VI. The Rise of Totalitarianism Fascism in Italy National socialism
in Germany Stalinist Totalitarianism Dictatorships
in Latin America Militarism in
Japan For many people around the globe,
allied victory in World War I promised a new era for the ideals of liberal democracy. For returning to peacetime production, all the major
western powers suffered economic hardship and rising unemployment.
Even in the US, the least affected, postwar industrial production slowed down. It meant lower wages and even layoffs. France had suffered the most damages from the war. Its battlefields scarred the landscape, which was covered with burn-out villages and towns, and scattered twisted metal. Land mines and unexploded shells continued to take lives. Vineyards and wheat fields had become barren. Somme battle landscape after WWI Paris 1918 French cemetery, 1919 Less physically affected than France, Britain had also a hard time recovering from the war.
It could no longer compete effectively with its wartime allies. As exports declined, unemployment rose. By 1921, some 2 million British people were out of work. An unemployed man and his family on the streets of Brighton in 1921 Victory parade after WWI c.Political and social changes In both Britain and the United States, women gained the right to vote after the war.
They had helped considerably the war effort. Suffragettes, 19th century Poster for women suffrage 1909 The Russian Revolution raised fears of a worldwide communist movement.
Between 1919 and 1920, a RED SCARE led to the arrest of thousands of suspected Communists.
Organizations such as the KU KLUX KLAN called for a "native, white, Protestant supremacy" and violently attacked African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, Catholics, Jews and labor union supporters. kkk parade in Washington DC, 1926 kkk in Gainesville, Florida, 1922 In Britain, hard times led to growing class tensions. In 1925, the PM Baldwin, stated his own solution:
"All the workers of this country have got to take reductions in in wages to help put industry on its feet".
Instead, in May 1926, millions of union workers, led by Britain's coal miners, called the first national strike.
The government refused to give in and made the strike collapse with the help of middle-class citizens. The Subsided Mineowner - Poor Beggar! Trench footprint: The still pockmarked landscape of Beaumont Hamel on the Somme where the Newfoundland Regiment were decimated by German machine guns Scars of battle: Haunting picture of a landscape near Verdun, France still shows the pockmarks and craters made in the Great War almost 100 years ago d. New prosperity By the end of the 1920s, all three major western democracies had experienced some degree of economic recovery.
Under Republican probusiness policies (President Harding), the US economy rebounded and boomed.
It took a bit longer for Britain and France. The new countries that emerged from the old empires in eastern Europe made effort to pursue liberal democracy but these efforts only increased the level of social tension among people. A new German Republic had been proclaimed on November 9, 1918, after the Kaiser´s abdication. The new democracy faced severe problems from the start.
Almost immediately, Marxist revolutionaries, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht besieged the provisional government in an effort to establish a communist regime. Eventually, the rebellion collapsed. The Weimar Republic was an artificial creation with very little deep-seated support among the German people. In 1923, another rebellion broke out in Munich. Known as the Beer Hall Putsch, the revolt was led by the former German General Ludendorff and Adolf Hitler, the leader of a small nationalist party.
The uprising was easily put down and the Weimar Republic never really gained momentum. German inflation American writer Ernest Hemingway, on a trip across the German border from France in 1922 described the problems faced by German shoppers in selling and buying goods. http://books.google.com.co/books?id=LF64DGwlMbgC&pg=PA268&lpg=PA268&dq=Hemingway++%22because+of+the+customs+regulations%22&source=bl&ots=yl0fMs8EYn&sig=DEcGG3FmHPrh1dCyvjs7cA4T4uQ&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=ny70UN6kD-SQ0QGklYDYDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Activity Read
answer Hemingway worksheet. In Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and the Baltic countries for example, the new democratic governments angered land owners by breaking apart old aristocratic estates and giving the land to peasants. Eastern Europe In Japan, democracy also faced challenges after WWI.
After intense exposure of Western culture, many worried about its effect on the traditional values of Japanese society.
After 1926, when the young emperor Hirohito assumed the imperial throne, a more militaristic faction began to take control of Japanese society. Focus Paris Match
January 1989 Emperor Hirohito
reviewing troops Consumer culture THE ARTS FINAL PROJECT
2nd trimester Auditory learners: RADIO BROADCAST
Linguistic learners: NEWSPAPER
Visual learners: MAGAZINE Review Synthesizing: What problems did many nations of Europe have in the post WWI era?
How can many of these problems be attributed to the war? Write or draw a one-page synthesis :) a. France b. Great Britain Ernest
Hemingway Beer Hall Putsch leaders Japan After the war, people started to think less about the future and more about the present.
The trauma left by World War I changed radically the way people and society thought about themselves. The Western society that emerged from WWI had changed politically and economically. But the brutality and destruction of the war had also changed society psychologically.
In almost every aspects, people seemed to be challenging long-standing traditions of Western civilization. Science, psychology and....
fashion! Some patent examples: Albert Einstein and his theory of relativity By 1916, he developed his idea that space and time were not absolute but relative to particular circumstances.
Einstein's theory shattered conceptions of physics that had been in place since Newton. "Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen." "Technological progress is like an axe in the hands of a pathological criminal." "You see, wire telegraph is a kind of a very, very long cat. You pull his tail in New York and his head is meowing in Los Angeles. Do you understand this? And radio operates exactly the same way: you send signals here, they receive them there. The only difference is that there is no cat." Albert Einstein. "Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to move in the opposite direction." Sigmund Freud The Austrian psychoanalyst argued that human behavior was dominated by people's attempt to make unconscious desires seem reasonable. FASHION During the ’20s, a New Woman emerged. She scoffed at the idea of lifelong servitude to housewifedom and saw herself as independent and self-sufficient. More women were going to college and working as a means to be independent of their families. The New Woman was taken to extremes in the form of the flapper.
Bobbed hair, fringe dresses, and bedroom eyes are staple images of this decade. “Flapper” was originally a British term that emerged after WWI. By the 1926, it was being used frequently in the United States to describe new women who “trot[ed] like foxes, limp like lame ducks, one step like cripples” (Atlantic Monthly, May 1920). These women loved to charleston the night away at speakeasies and were a huge part of Jazz culture. Their style became increasingly popular as the twenties progressed. As this new type of lady became more and more visible, flappers started popping up in movies.
Source: http://press.emerson.edu/tartuffe/2012/09/19/famous-flappers/ Colleen Moore Women, Canada, 1910 1920s flappers Edward Bernays, the father of SPIN SOURCES Tye, Larry. The father of SPIN: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of PR. Crown Publishers, 1998.
PROPAGANDA! Radio program of Là-bas si j'y suis, January 10th, 2012:
Van Slyke, Tormaigh. Smoking: giving women penises since 1929. Thevaultmag.com ACTIVITY Read the previous article (available online @ http://www.thevaultmag.com/archives/3308 )
and answer the following questions:
Who was Edward Bernays?
What were his three incredible achievements as a the first official propagandist ? Sports The Jazz age Movies To get the big picture:
citizens from the industrialized countries had more free time than before. 1800s: twelve-hour and longer day work was common
1890s: reduced to ten hours
1920s: eight hour a day became increasingly standard. 1800s 1920s
They looked for ways to spend and use all this free time! Or maybe it was the entertainment industry which
took advantage of this whole new space. Organized sports inspired tremendous enthusiasm during the 1920s and 1930s.
In the US professional baseball drew millions of fans to ballparks and the best baseball players ran to the status of national heroes. Babe Ruth 1931. That year he earned more than the US president "I had a better year than he did". But also:
-Soccer (1st World Cup Tournament in 1930)
-Birth of the Olympic games