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People Capital

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Mary Jones

on 6 June 2015

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Transcript of People Capital

So why don't more companies engage in these practices?
The common mindset is that anything given to employees siphons money from the bottom line.
What is people capital?

Bolman and Deal:
Chapter 7
Case Studies:
Bolman and Deal: Chapter Six
Key players
Models for Motivation
The Changing Employee Contract
Case Study: Southwest Airlines

EPPL 635
Mary Jones/Samantha Silberstein

Let's take a closer look...
People capital is all the knowledge, talents, skills, abilities, experiences, intelligence training, judgement, and wisdom possessed individually and collectively by a population.
Mary Parker Follett
"the woman who invented management"
Conflict resolution through integration
Genuine power is co-active not coercie
True leaders create power
source: http://www.business.com/management/management-theory-of-mary-parker-follett/
Models for Motivation
The Changing Employee Contract
Global competition + rapid change + shorter product life style = a turbulent, intensely competitive world

Premium placed on adapting quickly
Leads to:
Part-time work
Contract work
Growing dependence on well trained and loyal employees (Complex, decentralized organizations require high level of skill and commitment)

Skills gap - employers struggle finding individuals to fill high need/high skilled roles

Questions to consider:
How can higher education combat these skills gaps?
Should an organization seek adaptability or loyalty? High skills or low costs?
Smaller, more flexible workforce
Lower costs
Higher efficiency
Greater responsibility to business fluctuations
Risk trading short-term goals for long-term decay
Can lead to employee morale sinking
Losing knowledge, skills, loyalty, and innovation

Case Study: Southwest Airline
Founded in 1967
Roughly 46,000 employees
Over 100 million passengers fly every year
Excellent Customer Service Through Storytelling
Recognition and reward for outstanding work
Emphasis on fun in the workplace
Stress on positive attitude, not just skill
Creativity encouraged

Two Factor Theory
Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, 1959
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motives
Have an inverse relationship
intrinsic motivators tend to create motivation when they are present
extrinsic motivators tend to reduce motivation when they are absent
Human Motivation Theory
David McClelland, 1961
Three motivators: achievement, affiliation, power
People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator

Job Characteristics Model
Greg Oldman and Richard Hackman, 1970s
Focuses on looking at job design through a person-fit theory
Five characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback from the job
Three psychological states: meaningfulness, responsibility for outcomes and knowledge

Four Drive Model of Employee Motivation
Paul Lawrence, Nitin Nohria, 2002
Four underlying drives: Acquire & Achieve, to Bond & Belong, to be Challenged & Comprehend and to Define & Defend
Holistic way of looking at employee motivation
Companies typically focus on the drive to Acquire & Achieve
Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
Daniel Pink, 2011)
The secret to high performance and satisfaction is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.
Three drives: Autonomy, mastery, purpose
Wrap Up
Human Resource Frame - Highlights the relationship between people and organizations
Organizations need people, people need organizations
But these needs are not always aligned
Fit is important
If fit is poor, one or more sides suffer
If there is a good fit, both sides benefit
Organizational Dilemma - Be lean-and-mean or invest in people?
Spurred by globalization, change, and turbulence
Manning Chapter 16
Psychological Theoretical Framework
Positive Psychology
Key Players
Spiritual Capital and Spiritual Intelligence
Spirit and Soul
Wrap Up

Assumptions of a Psychological Theoretical Framework:
Understanding human nature/behavior can assist one’s job performance and effectiveness
Organizations are sites where human nature can be expressed
Humans can seek to become self-actualized is within organizations
One’s psychological and emotional health (or lack thereof) will have an impact on organization health
Psychological health and lack of psychological health can be expressed on both an individual and organizational level
Can you think of an example of an organization impacted by psychological health?
Positive Psychology
Happiness is a goal of human living
Nurturing positive emotions can significantly affect individual’s sense of well-being
Telling one’s healthy story can lead to healing and growth
Seeking authentic goals such as intimacy, generativity, and spirituality promotes well-being
Theoretical Fits
Web structure of the feminist perspective
Collegial circle structure
How would this theoretical framework work in your department?
Dana Zohar
Management thought leader, physicist, philosopher and author
One of the first theorists to explore spiritualities impact on organizational theory
Spirituality from the viewpoint of quantum physics
"business must add a moral dimension, becoming more service- and value-oriented and largely eliminating the assumed natural distinction between private enterprise and public institutions"
Author: ReWiring the Corporate Brain
(Chickering, 2006)
Organizations (higher education) are not value free
There are value priorities
Gap between expressed and espoused values can be large, unrecognized, and/or unarticulated
The spiritual perspective makes organizational values explicit
Spiritual Capital and Spiritual Intelligence
Both terms are linked together
Both terms are linked to the meaning making of an organization
Business becomes higher service
Jobs become callings
Spiritual Capital: the value of personal, social or cultural beliefs and meanings that stimulate creativity, encourage moral behaviour and motivate individuals
Spiritual Intelligence: The ability to behave with wisdom and compassion, while maintaining inner and outer peace, regardless of the situation.
Alan Briskin, Ph.D
Co-founder of the Collective Wisdom Initiative
Introduced three elements into his explanation of organizational theory
Linked organizations and spirituality to spirit and soul
Embracing the upper world aspects of soul (happiness, wonder, joy) as well as the underworld aspects (abandonment, rage, despair, shame)
Bennis: The Secret of Groups

Shared dream
Manage conflict
Protection from corporate overseers
Have a real or invented nemesis
Make strong leaders
Product of meticulous recruiting

Provide direction and meaning
Generate and sustain trust
Display a bias toward action, risk taking, and curiosity
Are purveyors of hope
Purpose of Great Groups
Norms of Great Groups
Art or Science?

Great Groups
Spirit and Soul
Spirit: Comes from higher up and descends into the body
Soul: Is in the middle, holding together spirit and body
Upper World in Higher Education
Shadow Side in Higher Education
Always correct
Burned out
Unable to set limits
Can you think of other examples of upper world or shadow side in higher education?
Organizations are connected organisms
Affect one another across units, communal structures, and national borders
Cannot act without having an impact on the political, social, and economic health of surrounding communities
Example: Economic crash of 2008
Spiritual framework: Organizations have infrastructures that build on relationships and encourages exchange of dialogue
Ways to create relationships: Dialogue, associations, networks
Can you think of any additional ways to create relationships?
Types of Spiritual Leaders
Soul Leader - integrate external power (the capacity to act) with internal power (the capacity to reflect); Internal power emerges out of our inner self, our souls, our deepest values, and is more related to who we really are and what our life purposes are.
Servant Leader - focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong.
Stewardship - the choice to preside over the orderly distribution of power; giving people at the bottom and the boundaries of the organization choice over how to serve a customer, a citizen, a community
Quantum leadership - concerned with the creative processes of a team and less concerned with structure imposed in advance of the goal being pursued
Would you identify with any of these types of leadership?
Wrap Up
Provides a diverse perspective
Allows for collaboration
Alternative to beuacracies
Overly optimistic
Can be off-putting to non-spiritual individuals
Lacks sufficient analysis
Popular in Europe, rarely used in the US higher education system
Faculty divided by discipline
Administrators operate in bureaucratic structures
Spiritual Framework in US Higher Education
Incorporating spirituality in higher education
Learning communities
Faculty lead study abroad programs
Service learning
Can you think of any other opportunities?
Individual achievement vs. Group achievement
Problems complex
Variety yields solutions

So how is it important to organizations?
Employee perks:
Medical care
Gourmet cafeteria
Child Care
Self-service laundry
Shuttle bus service
Steve Jobs of his time
Provided clean, decent housing for workers and their families
Built a school for workers' children
Ideas were considered too radical
During the 20th century, business leaders began to believe in investing in people and responding to their needs.

Like Owen, business leaders realize that investing in people yields greater returns than investing in machinery.
Changes in the business environment have made resource management more critical than ever.
Skilled and motivated work force provide the speed and flexibility required by new market imperatives and has increased the importance of human resource management.
Why don't more managers pursue this?
Fear of losing control (Theory X)
Requires time and persistence
Organization is viewed a "portfolio of financial numbers"
Many organizations are getting it right

Develop an approach that flows from the organization's strategy and human capital needs
Practices are not perfect but good
Organization benefits from a talented, motivated, and loyal workforce
Employees are more productive, innovative, and willing to go out of their way to get the job done

Thank you!
Manning Ch. 17

The case study gives us a glimpse at a institution's spiritual perspective in establishing a family leave policy that best fits the needs of their employees.
Bess & Dee: Chapter 10
The case study of Davis Community College allows us to review a Great Group example.
Robert Owen
Models for Motivation
Full transcript