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Ch 15 -Nonrenewable Energy
Transcript of Ch 15 -Nonrenewable Energy
15-1: What is net energy and why is it important?
Crude oil is formed from the
of ancient marine organisms that were buried beneath sediments and subjected to
high heat and pressure
What is Oil?
-mixture of many different
liquids and gases that
provide a variety of energy uses
led to the call for renewed oil exploration and drilling in environmentally sensitive areas like
offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
This refining of oil produces many different products called
that can be made into synthetic fibers, plastics, pesticides, paint, etc..
Oil Shale and Tar Sands are both oily deposits than can yield oil when processed.
although there are large reserves of these energy sources (especially in Canada) it still requires the same destructive techniques that we've seen from mining.
is the most abundant fossil fuel, and is used to produce most of the world's
Ranks of coal:
Peat (lowest energy content)
Anthracite (highest energy content)
Natural Gas is 50-90% methane and is formed and found alongside crude oil.
A major disadvantage to extracting natural gas is the use of
hydraulic fracturing or FRACKING
Fracking is when water and other secret chemicals (that are known to be carcinogens) are pumped underground to fracture the rock and create pressure that will pump out the natural gas.
Where do you think these chemicals end up?
History of Fossil Fuel Use
Groups of 4: Complete example problems together and submit your best and final answers as a group.
Remember you must set up the problem correctly with units.
Why are gas prices so cheap? Here is a quick explanation...
Update: President Obama Calls Protection of ANWR as a Wilderness
Ecological success right?! However, some people are really upset about this... Why?
Oil Spills: Groups of 3 or 4
Choose 1 to research and make a quick powerpoint.
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 1989
Gulf Oil Spill 2010
Environmental Issues Associated with Fracking:
Groundwater and Surface WaterContamination-
fracking chemicals, methane, liquid waste stored in
Surface Water Contamination
Excessive Water Use and Consumption
Habitat Destruction at drilling site
Earthquakes can result from fracking
Methane (a greenhouse gas) can leak into the atmosphere
Instead of burning (combustion of) coal, nuclear power plants use the process of
Nuclear power plants use the same general method as those fired by fossil fuels- heat water to produce steam which turns a turbine connected to a generator to make electricity.
In your Notebook answer the following questions:
1. Three Mile Island 2. Chernobyl
Questions you will answer will be:
-when and where did it take place
-what caused the disaster
-name several impacts of the disaster
We get most of our energy by burning carbon-containing fossil fuels. Note that oil is the most widely use form of commercial energy and that about 79% of the energy used in the world (85% of the energy used the United States) comes from burning nonrenewable fossil fuels.
A little review....
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
It takes high-quality energy to get high-quality energy
Today, high-tech equipment can tap into an oil deposit on land and at sea to a depth of almost 11 kilometers (7 miles). But this requires a huge amount of high-quality energy and can cost billions of dollars per well.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics:
High-quality energy is wasted or degraded into lower quality.
The amount of high-quality energy available from an energy resource minus the amount of energy needed to make it happen.
Net Energy Ratio: : ratio of energy produced to energy used to produce it.
Higher the net energy ratio...the grate, the greater the net energy available.
Energy Resources With Low Net Energy Yields Need Marketplace Help
Cannot compete in open markets with alternatives that have higher net energy yields
Need subsidies from taxpayers
Nuclear power as an example
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using oil?
Also called conventional oil and petroleum
When crude oil is refined, many of its components are removed at various levels, depending on their boiling points, of a giant distillation column that can be as tall as a nine-story building. The most volatile components with the lowest boiling points are removed at the top of the column.
How long will Conventional oil last?
Rapid increase since 1950
Largest consumers in 2009
United States, 23%
Laid end to end, the number of barrels of conventional crude oil used in 2009 would stretch to about 21 million miles. Long enough to reach to the moon and back 44 times!
Proven oil reserves
: Identified as deposits from which conventional crude oil can be extracted profitably at current prices with current technology.
Unproven oil reserves
: Consists of a potential recoverable oil. 10-50% chance of recovery.
Proven and unproven reserves will be 80% depleted sometime between 2050 and 2100. The other 20% will likely be too costly to remove.
OPEC Controls most of the world's oil
Organization of petroleum Exporting Countries
60% of the world's proven crude oil reserves
The end of OPEC
Three caveats when evaluating future oil supplies
1. Potential reserves are not proven reserves
2. Must use net energy yield to evaluate potential of any oil deposit
3. Must take into account high global use of oil (currently 31 billion barrels/year)
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Estimated unproven reserve: Would meet current world demand for 1-5 months and US demand for 7-24 months.
Proven and unproven reserves
Advantages and Disadvantages of...
Conventional natural gas - lies above most reservoirs of crude oil
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - propane and butane is liquified under high pressure.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) - Methane is liquified under high pressure.
Low net energy yield
Makes U.S. dependent upon unstable countries like Russia and Iran
Coal bed methane gas
In coal beds near the earth’s surface
In shale beds
High environmental impacts or extraction
Trapped in icy water
In permafrost environments
On ocean floor
Costs of extraction currently too high
Advantages and Disadvantages of...
Buried 300-400 million years ago and then exposed to intense heat and pressure over those millions of years.
This power plant burns pulverized coal to boil water and produce steam that spins a turbine to produce electricity. The steam is cooled, condensed, and returned to the boiler for reuse. Waste heat can be transferred to the atmosphere or to a nearby source of water.
Coal Deposits in the United States
Coal companies and energy companies fought
Classifying carbon dioxide as a pollutant
Classifying coal ash as hazardous waste
Air pollution standards for emissions
2008 clean coal campaign ($40 million publicity campaign) designed to promote "burning coal cleaner".
But no such thing as clean coal
“Coal is the single greatest threat to civilization and all life on the planet.” –
24,000 americans a year die from burning coal (American Lung Association)
Clean coal and anti-coal campaign
Conversion of solid coal to
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) by coal gasification
Methanol or synthetic gasoline by coal liquefaction
Produce less air pollution but requires more coal than if burning directly.
Advantages and disadvantages
1. Mine the uranium
2. Process the uranium to make the fuel
3. Use it in the reactor
4. Safely store the radioactive waste
5. Decommission the reactor
Storing Spent Radioactive Fuel Rods Presents Risks
Rods must be replaced every 3-4 years
Cooled in water-filled pools
Placed in dry casks
Must be stored for thousands of years
Vulnerable to terrorist attack
After 3 or 4 years in a reactor, spent fuel rods are removed and stored in a deep pool of water contained in a steel-lined concrete basin (left) for cooling. After about 5 years of cooling, the fuel rods can be stored upright on concrete pads (right) in sealed dry-storage casks made of heat-resistant metal alloys and concrete.
Fuse lighter elements into heavier elements
No risk of meltdown or large radioactivity release
Still in the laboratory phase after 50 years of research and $34 billion dollars
2006: U.S., China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, and European Union
Will build a large-scale experimental nuclear fusion reactor by 2018