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The Morality of Artificial Contraception

A history, summary and debate over the use of artificial contraception
by

satin widrow

on 15 April 2010

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Transcript of The Morality of Artificial Contraception

Different Types of Artificial Contraception There are three main types of Artificial Contraception- Barrier Methods, Hormonal Methods and Sterilization. Barrier Methods

Condoms

•Two Types- Male Condom and Female Condom

Spermicide

Diaphragm

Cervical Cap

Contraceptive Sponge

Hormonal Methods

Birth Control Pills

Depo-Provera

Lunelle

NuvaRing

Ortho Evra Patch

Intrauterine Device (IUD)
Sterilization

Tubal Ligation

Vasectomy
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTRACEPTIVES Before there was artificial contraception...

According to the bible in the book of genesis, the earliest form of contraception is coitus interruptus, more commonly known as "the pullout method" The only other natural form of contraception is ovulation planning, which is not having sex during days when a woman is most fertile. 350 BC
The earliest form of artificial contraception was proposed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who proposed the use of natural oils as spermicide.

1500s
An Italian doctor by the name of Gabrielle Fallopius, suggested that linen sheath condoms be used to protect against syphilis.
HERE IS SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT!

18th century Venetian author and renowned womanizer, Giacomo Casanova mentioned in his memoirs that he would use the skin of half a lemon as a cervical cap to prevent pregnancy for his many affairs 1640s
Farmers in Condom, France began using sheep intestines as contraceptives, possibly the origin of the lambskin condom.

1830's
Charles Knowlton, an American Physician invents a birth control substance made up of salt, liquid chloride, zinc sulfite and vinegar. This substance was injected into the uterus by a syringe. This method of contraceptives was popular for 40 years.

1870's
A variety of artificial contraceptives became are available in America, sold at many pharmacies. (these condoms were actually thick and reusable)



1873
Congress passes the Comstock Law, an anti-obscenity act that lists contraceptives as obscene material and outlaws the sale of them.

1920's
Margaret Sanger and Katharine McCormick and operate secret birth control clinics and distribute diaphragms to women. These clinics would progress to become planned parenthood.


1930's
The Roman Catholic Church makes its first definitive statement on birth control. Pope Pius XI issues an encyclical titled Casti Canubi, calling birth control a sin, and opposing birth control by any artificial means.

During the great depression, many families felt the effects of deprivation of birth control. Margaret Sanger witnessed women struggle under Massachusetts' Puritanical Comstock laws. In a decision titled U.S. vs. One Package, the court rules that physicians can receive contraceptive devices and information via the mail unless prohibited by a specific local law. It is a major victory for Sanger and birth control advocates. 1950's
Katharine McCormick and Margaret Sanger team up to fund Dr. Greg Pincus's research for the progesterone hormone birth control pill. Birth control is approved by the FDA and on the market.

1960's Contraceptives are still illegal in many parts of the country. One fourth of all American couples use the pill to prevent pregnancy. President Lyndon B. Johnson even advocated for the pill to help poor struggling families.
BIG WIN!
1965: Estelle Griswold and Lee Buxton take their Connecticut case (where comstock laws still exist) all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. By a vote of 7-2 in Griswold v. Connecticut, the Court determines the laws prohibiting birth control as a violation of a couples' right to privacy
1980's
Several types of oral contraceptives are on the market and hormone based birth control are used by 50-80 million women worldwide. The introduction and fear of HIV brings focus back to condoms after scientists and experts agree it is the best way to protect from the disease.

1990's-2000's
The introduction to new forms of contraceptives such as Nuva Ring, the Ortho Erva Patch, and the Depo Provera shot.
History of Artifical Contraceptives The Catholic Church Standpoint on the Use of Artificial Contraception

•The Catholic Church has always condemned artificial contraception.

•In 1968, Pope Paul VI issued his landmark encyclical letter Humanae Vitae, meaning "Human Life", which re-emphasized the Church’s constant teaching that it is always intrinsically wrong to use contraception to prevent new human beings from coming into existence.

•Today the Catholic Church is the only Church that denounces the use of contraception. However, a few realize that until 1930, all Protestant denominations agreed with the Catholic Church’s teaching condemning contraception as sinful.

•At the 1930 Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Church, swayed by growing social pressure, announced that contraception would be allowed in some circumstances. All the other protestant denominations soon followed.
•The Church forbids sex outside marriage, so its teachings about birth control should be understood in the context of husband and wife.


•The Roman Catholic Church believes that using contraception is "intrinsically evil" in itself, regardless of the consequences. In the Catechism of the Catholic Church, it is said that "[E]very action which, whether in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in its accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes, whether as an end or as a means, to render procreation impossible is intrinsically evil" (CCC 2370).

•Catholics are only permitted to use natural methods of birth control. But the Church does not condemn things like the pill or condoms in themselves. What is morally wrong is using such things with the intention of preventing conception. Using them for other purposes is fine - for example, using the pill to regulate the periods of a woman who is not in a sexual relationship is not wrong.


morality of Contraception

English Protestantism

Eastern Orthodox

Islam

Hinduism
Full transcript