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Copy of The Quote Sandwich: Using Quotes Effectively

An activity to teach students how to integrate quotations into a research paper.
by

Ethan Penland

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of The Quote Sandwich: Using Quotes Effectively

The Quote Sandwich:
Using Quotes
Effectively See any problem with this paragraph? Cheating is a big problem in schools. “The extent of student cheating, difficult to measure precisely, appears widespread at colleges. In surveys of 14,000 undergraduates over the last four years, an average of 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments and exams” (Gabriel). Sometimes students don’t realize they’re cheating. “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). Some colleges use a tutorial to teach students about cheating and plagiarism. “Students at an unnamed selective college who completed a Web tutorial were shown to plagiarize two-thirds less than students who did not” (Gabriel). The Problem: This paragraph is just a bunch of quotes!
Where are the writer’s ideas? What is the problem with quotes?
With a partner, list two reasons why you should not use too many quotes in a research paper.

You may look at the following websites for ideas:
Colorado State University Writing Center: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/includingsources/quoting/overusing.cfm
University of Houston Clear Lakes Writing Center: http://prtl.uhcl.edu/portal/page/portal/WC/Files/Tipsheet%20Quotes%20-%20A
Shelby County Schools’ research paper page: http://www.scsk12.org/scs/subject-areas/Research_paper/quotes.htm When you use too many quotes: You will sound like you have no ideas of your own.
Readers will be confused because they see too many different people’s ideas at once.
Readers will think you do not understand your topic.
Your paper will probably be padded with irrelevant information. So quotations are always bad, right? Wrong! With your partner, list three situations where you can use quotes effectively.

You may look at the following websites for ideas:
Shelby County Schools’ research paper page:
http://www.scsk12.org/scs/subject-areas/Research_paper/quotes.htm
University of Toronto Writing Centre: http://www.utoronto.ca/ucwriting/quotations.html
InfoTrac College Edition: http://infotrac.thomsonlearning.com/infowrite/res_quotations.htm Some good reasons to use quotes: When you want to analyze someone’s exact words
When you want to show why someone else’s ideas are wrong
When you want to use an expert’s words to support your own ideas
When the original words are so well-written that you cannot paraphrase them effectively Editing to Take Out Quotes Take another look at the sample paragraph.

Cheating is a big problem in schools. “The extent of student cheating, difficult to measure precisely, appears widespread at colleges. In surveys of 14,000 undergraduates over the last four years, an average of 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments and exams” (Gabriel). Sometimes students don’t realize they’re cheating. “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). Some colleges use a tutorial to teach students about cheating and plagiarism. “Students at an unnamed selective college who completed a Web tutorial were shown to plagiarize two-thirds less than students who did not” (Gabriel).

With your partner, revise it so that the first and third quotes are in your own words instead. A possible revision Cheating is a big problem in schools. In some surveys, as many as 61% of students say that they have committed some type of academic dishonesty (Gabriel). But sometimes students don’t even realize they’re cheating. “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). Some colleges have found after students took a tutorial about avoiding plagiarism, significantly fewer of them cheated (Gabriel). Are we there yet?
Not quite! Look at this quotation again.
“The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer).

Who is talking? Why should we care what they say? We don’t know! What do we need? A signal phrase! Don't just dump in a quote! A signal phrase
Tells readers that they are about to read a quote
Tells readers who you are going to quote

Some examples of signal phrases:
“According to Barry Lopez, author of Arctic Dreams…”
“Amy Barlow, a researcher at the University of California, said…”
"In her book Eats, Shoots, & Leaves, Lynne Truss explains…” Like this: Jeanine Batterton, a teacher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that when she tried to discipline some students for cheating, “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). When you use a quote, you need to do four things.
Introduce the quote with your own ideas
Use a signal phrase
Quote your source
Conclude with your own ideas about why the quote is important Are we there yet?
Not quite! To quote effectively, picture a sandwich:
The top bread: your own ideas
The condiments: a signal phrase
The meat: the quote itself
The bottom bread: your own ideas A Quote Sandwich Teachers may assume that students know what cheating is, but the fact is that many students do not. Students need to be taught what is right and what is wrong in an academic setting. “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). For example, Jeanine Batterton, a teacher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that when she tried to discipline some students for cheating, Some students may cheat because they are dishonest or lazy, but many other students don’t even realize that they are doing anything wrong.

The writer’s ideas, introducing the quote:

A signal phrase:


The quote:

The writer’s ideas, explaining why the quote is important: Like this: A paragraph that uses a quotation effectively:

Cheating is a big problem in schools. In some surveys, as many as 61% of students say that they have committed some type of academic dishonesty (Gabriel). Some students may cheat because they are dishonest or lazy, but many other students don’t even realize that they are doing anything wrong. For example, Jeanine Batterton, a teacher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that when she tried to discipline some students for cheating, “The No. 1 excuse students had was that no one ever taught them what plagiarism was, and in those instances the university basically said I didn’t teach them clear enough guidelines and so the students couldn’t be held accountable” (Finkelmeyer). Teachers may assume that students know what cheating is, but the fact is that many students do not. Students need to be taught what is right and what is wrong in an academic setting. Some colleges have found after students took a tutorial about avoiding plagiarism, significantly fewer of them cheated (Gabriel). Now you try! With your partner, rewrite this paragraph to use the quote effectively. Remember: make a quote sandwich!

“The extent of student cheating, difficult to measure precisely, appears widespread at colleges. In surveys of 14,000 undergraduates over the last four years, an average of 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments and exams” (Gabriel). Some students may cheat because they are dishonest or lazy, but many other students don’t even realize that they are doing anything wrong. For example, when Jeanine Batterton, a teacher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, tried to discipline some students for cheating, the students appealed her decision. So many of them said that they had never been taught how to avoid plagiarism, the university decided not to penalize them (Finkelmeyer). Teachers may assume that students know what cheating is, but the fact is that many students do not. Students need to be taught what is right and what is wrong in an academic setting. Some colleges have found after students took a tutorial about avoiding plagiarism, significantly fewer of them cheated (Gabriel). A possible revision: Cheating and plagiarism are bigger problems than many people realize. According to Trip Gabriel’s article in the New York Times, “The extent of student cheating, difficult to measure precisely, appears widespread at colleges. In surveys of 14,000 undergraduates over the last four years, an average of 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments and exams.” Clearly, since more than half of students are committing academic dishonesty, schools need to find an effective way to prevent cheating. Some students may cheat because they are dishonest or lazy, but many other students don’t even realize that they are doing anything wrong. For example, when Jeanine Batterton, a teacher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, tried to discipline some students for cheating, the students appealed her decision. So many of them said that they had never been taught how to avoid plagiarism, the university decided not to penalize them (Finkelmeyer). Teachers may assume that students know what cheating is, but the fact is that many students do not. Students need to be taught what is right and what is wrong in an academic setting. Some colleges have found after students took a tutorial about avoiding plagiarism, significantly fewer of them cheated (Gabriel). Cheating and plagiarism are bigger problems than many people realize. Clearly, since more than half of students are committing academic dishonesty, schools need to find an effective way to prevent cheating. “The extent of student cheating, difficult to measure precisely, appears widespread at colleges. In surveys of 14,000 undergraduates over the last four years, an average of 61 percent admitted to cheating on assignments and exams.” According to Trip Gabriel’s article in the New York Times,
The writer’s ideas, introducing the quote:

A signal phrase:


The quote:

The writer’s ideas, explaining why the quote is important: See the quote sandwich? Your own analysis The quote A signal phrase Your own introduction Use quotes sparingly—only when you really need to include someone else’s exact words.
Use quotes effectively—create a quote sandwich. Using quotes:
the bottom line Are we there yet?
Yes! For Students: Creating a quote sandwich For Teachers:
How to Use this Activity Intended Students This lesson is intended for advanced ELLs and native
speakers at the high school or college level.
It works best for students who are currently writing a research paper and have some basic knowledge of citation. Purpose This activity is intended to show students how to integrate quotations into a research paper .
Students, both ELLs and native speakers, tend to use too many quotations in papers. They often dump quotes in with no context.
ELLs in particular overuse quotes because they are not proficient enough to write in their own words, or do not feel comfortable doing it.
Depending on your ELLs' level of proficiency, you may want to allow them to use more quotes than native speakers do. But in that case, it is even more important to show them how to integrate quotes effectively. Materials needed The For Students section of this Prezi
A worksheet for each pair of students with blank spaces for each of the four tasks:
Two reasons NOT to use too many quotes
Three situations when quotes are appropriate
Three examples of signal phrases
First revision of sample paragraph
Second revision of sample paragraph Instructions Explain purpose of activity.
Show students how to view a Prezi.
Divide students into pairs. If possible, pair ELLs with native speakers.
Distribute a worksheet to each pair of students to be handed in at the end of class.
Have students start viewing Prezi. Check on students' progress and remind them to complete the worksheet tasks before moving to the next slide.
At end of each task, ask a few students to verbally share what they have learned with the rest of the class. Time Needed One to two class periods, depending on the length
of your class.
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