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Events of the Russian Revolution
Paola Garzaon 13 April 2011
Transcript of Events of the Russian Revolution
decentralized when it was first invaded by a Mongol raiding party in 1223.
Later in 1237, it was raided by a much larger Mongol force, and then in 1240
the Mongols overturned the city of Kiev and continued westward. Parts of
Keivan Rus' were under control of the Mongols and even paid tribute to them.
The Mongols ruled for a few centuries until
Ivan the Great ended it, however Mongol Influence was long-lasting
taking effect on everything from politics to culture and even causing cities like
Moscow to flourish. The Rule of Alexander II 1855 - 1881 Alexander II succeeded the throne in 1855 whn his father died.
Things that occurred throughout his reign were the end of the Crimean war,emancipation of the serfs, a new judicial administration, oppression of the Poles, encouragement of Finnish nationalism,and universal military conscription. Alexander II's reign ended in 1881 when he fell victim to an assassination plot. The Rule of Alexander III 1881 - 1894 After the assassination of his father, Alexander III also known as Alexander the Peacemaker, came to the throne.
Alexander III was known for increasing the oppressive powers of the police, increasing censorship, controlling education, limiting the strength on loval assemblies and the judiciary, intensifying control of peasantry, and exposing minorities to Russification. He basically undid lots of his father's reforms. Alexander III died of nephritis
in 1894 and was succeeded by his eldest son Nicholas II.
Reign of Nicholas II 1894 - 1917 Nicholas II came to the throne after his father's unexpected death. Nicholas II didn't seem ready for the position of Czar of Russia. He refused to give any power to elected Russian representatives, and maintained and absolute autocracy to continue the intentions of his father.
Nicholas II however, was responsible for many events that eventually led to his abdication.
These events included: The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 This war between Japan and Russia began when Russia expanded east
and Japan expanded west, creating territorial conflict. The Japanese attacked the Russians without formally declaring war, and the fight began. Battles took place on East Asian ports and the Russians had to transport supplies through the Trans-Siberian Railway. Nicholas II took on the war with a large sense of confidence completely ignoring the financing and long-distance-war factors that eventually led to heavy Russian suffering. Growing Russian losses finally convinced Nicholas to seek peace. * * Bloody Sunday 1905 (January 22) George Gapon, a priest planned to go to the Winter Palace with his followers to hand a petition to Tsar Nicholas II, the Tsar however wasn't at the Winter Palace at the time. Since the local police could not control the people of Gapon, additional troops were called for. On that Sunday, Gapon and his followers began to march throughout the streets until finally, they were met by the police troops, the troops grew nervous and opened fire on Gapon's followers. About 92 were killed and hundreds wounded, although not present, Nicholas II was blamed for this massacre. * Russia in WWI 1914 Russia entered WWI when war between Germany and Serbia
broke out in defense of Serbia. They fought mainly on the Eastern Front against
the Germans and faced heavy losses. The Tsar, without any military exerience
decided to leave to the front to command the army and leave his wife in charge.
The Empress, looked to a man Rasputin to consult with over political issues while
herhusband was away and the Russian people became angered. Unfortunately, the
Russians did not have the technology and innovations to keep up with the war and retreated. * The February/March Revolution February/March 1917 The stress and strain that resulted from Russia's involvement in WWI left Russia in a chaotic state. Living conditions were bad and there was a lack of basic essentials. The people wanted reform, they wanted to get rid of the Autocratic Monarchy and be able to have a say in the government. In the end, it resulted in the replacement of the Tsar, with a Provsional Government. Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II/Establishment of Provisional Government March 1917 Following the serious inner turmoil of Russia of WWI and the March Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate by the Russians in favor for his son, Tsarevich Alexei, but since he suffere from Hemophilia, Nicholas passed on the title to his brother, who also renounced the title. With nobody to rule, a Provisional Government was established over Russia until a type of government was chosen. The Provisional government was short-lived and ended officially after the October Revolution (Bolshevick Revolution.) White Army vs. Red Army Civil War
1917-1920 The Bolshevik Revolution October 1917 With the Russian politics in a state of confusion and disorganization, Lenin decided it was time to make his political party popular. He planned to overthrow the Provisional Governmant and replace it with the Bolsheviks, he consulted with the other members of his party and proceeded with his plans. On October 24th, Bolshevik troops began to take over and diffuse throughout St. Petersburg until the entire city was under their control. On the 25th, the troops took over the winter palace and the goal of the Bolshevik Revolution was acheived. After Russia fell to the Bolsheviks, The Bolsheviks decided to make peace with the Germans.The Russians, led by Leon Trotsky, signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and gave up amounts of Russian land to the Germans; this angered the Nationalists and Conservatives. After this, Anti-Bolshevik forces like Liberals, Conservatives, and Democratic reformers united against the Communist Bolsheviks and created the White Army. The Bolsheviks remained the Red Army. The strugle was mainly over the type of government that should govern Russia.
Events that occurred during this time span include: * The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 1918 This was a Peace treaty signed betwen Russia and the Central Powers that marked Russia's exit from WWI. The Central powers took from Russia, territory and one-fourth of its industry and population. This Treaty gave relief to the Bolsheviks and reduced them of stress from fighting in WWI along with their Civil war. Lenin's New Economic Policy
1921 Lenin called this economic policy state-capitalism. This policy allowed to some alterations
in the economy, instead of owning all goods, the gvernment took only a portion, leaving
the rest for people to sell privately. People could privately own small businesses like animal
shops or smoke shops again. However the state coninued to manage all major and large
businesses like foreign trade, banks, and of course, large industries. Russia Becomes USSR
1922 The Bolsheviks, having basically won the Russian civil war,
took over Russia with Lenin as the head of the government. They renamed Russia, The USSR which stood for, "United Soviet Socialist Republic." The USSR became a strong communist power and remained
the USSR until the 1990s. Lenin Dies
1924 A year before Lenin's death he began experiencing strokes making him unable to proceed as leader of the USSR, the government had been managing without him. Stalin and Trotsky
had sort of developed a rivalry over who would lead after Lenin.
Lenin then died officially opening a spot as ruler and intensifying
the clash between Stalin and Trotsky. Power Struggle: Stalin vs Trotsky
1922-1927 Even before Lenin had died there was already two possible successors to Lenin's power, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, Trotsky being the popular for even Lenin preferred him. However, later in the power struggle, Stalin overall insignificant status began to change as he began to meet the right people, place his followers in key government positions, and using propaganda for his benefit, Stalin was playing the game well. Eventually after using killer moves, Stalin managed to take the ruler position after Lenin's death and to eliminate any more competition, hired an assassin to get rid of Trotsky for good while Trotsky was in Mexico. Stalin's Totalitarian Rule
1928-1953 Stalin succeeded Lenin and right away began making changes to the USSR.
Stalin increased his own power along with that on the secret police and intelligence
agencies. Throughout his rule Stalin was known for creating a cult of personality: Stalinism, and rapidly trying to industrialize Russia using Five-year plans that led to large famines and decreased life quality. Although Stalin's rule seemed ruthless, he did manage to make strives to try to catch up the USSR to the rest of the world and in the long-run, that benefitted Russia a whole lot. The Great Purge
1936-1938 Under Stalin, the Great Purge was a series of campaigns that caused Political persecution and oppression. Stalin opressed peasants and got rid of anyone who could possibly challenge his approach to communism. Anyone thought to be an enemy was arrested, imprisoned, or even executed. This time period was also known as 'The Great Terror' which in some way was similar to Robespierre's 'Reign of Terror. cille85.wordpress.com/.../joseph-stalin-poster/ http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://site.www.umb.edu/faculty/frey_d/Bloody_Sunday_-_Russia_-_1905.jpg&imgrefurl=http://site.www.umb.edu/faculty/frey_d/unit_8.htm&usg=__Iw9wJNdUsEIDmj4fhB9Ekw6heqg=&h=512&w=768&sz=48&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&itbs=1&tbnid=l9xbKLufMxtFcM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=142&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbloody%2Bsunday%2Brussia%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26rlz%3D1T4GZFA_enUS280US283%26ndsp%3D21%26tbm%3Disch&ei=D2OiTaalJKfl0QG27PjPBg royaleurope.blogspot.com/2010_12_01_archive.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Rus%27 http://schools-history.info/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/tsar-nicholas-ii-1898.jpg&imgrefurl=http://schools-history.info/%3Fp%3D847&usg=__MdmCQVNwNPJvq_rGB7PxtaqlN8o=&h=2604&w=1890&sz=715&hl=en&start=2&zoom=1&itbs=1&tbnid=d0Kn3Ix1cJotcM:&tbnh=150&tbnw=109&prev=/search%3Fq%3DNicholas%2BII%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26rlz%3D1T4GZFA_enUS280US283%26tbm%3Disch%26prmd%3Divnsb&ei=VPekTf_-EuL20gGA99TXCQ www.stel.ru/museum/ ncvpsapwh.pbworks.com/w/page/4251788/Chapters... kasamaproject.org/.../ www.worldclassflags.com/prod-ussr-flag.htm www.sahistory.org.za/.../06-economic.htm historyfacebook.wikispaces.com/Bolsheviks