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Transcript of Personality
Identify and explain the psychological theories linked to personality(C).
Evaluate personality theories(B/A). Learning outcomes Starter activity Task Trait perspective Define Personality How do we form our personalities? Born with them (Trait)
We learn them – through watching others and having our behaviour reinforced or punished (Social Learning)
Bit of both of the above (Interactionist) Complete the following questions.
1) I am ........ competitive/non competitive.
2) I am ........ ambitious/unambitious.
3) I am ......... a fast worker/ a slow worker.
4) I ....... enjoy control/do not enjoy control.
5) I......... suffer with stress/ do not suffer with sucess. Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to be relatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes that exert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”
Outgoing, Aggressive, Tense, Shy, Relaxed, Sensitive etc. Sports PsychologyPersonality Personality is……….“The sum total of an individual’s psychological characteristics which make him or her unique.” (Hollander)
“Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment to the environment” (Eysenck) Catell 1965 Traits can be arranged in hierarchical order.
The stronger the trait, the more dominant the behaviour.
Trait theory does not believe that the situation or environment has any bearing on a persons behaviour.
Behaviour is said to be consistent.
Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour. Narrow band approach This approach recognises 2 distinct personality types, each of which highlights their own characteristics. TYPE B CHARACTERISTICS:
WORKS MORE SLOWLY
DOES NOT ENJOY CONTROL
LESS PRONE TO STRESS TYPE A CHARACTERISTICS:
STRONG DESIRE TO SUCCEED
LIKES TO CONTROL
PRONE TO SUFFER STRESS Personality types are arranged on 2 dimensions.
– Stable/Neurotic. Eysenck's Theory 1968 Looking back at the answers to the questionnaire you completed. Which type of personality are you?
Which type suits a professional sportsperson best? Evaluation of the trait persepctive Too simplistic
Not good predictors of behaviour/success/sport
Doesn’t account for;
Changes to personality over time
Individuals who actively alter their personality Which sport suit which type of personality best?
Does your personality suit your sport? Which sports suit which personality types? Introverts tend to like sports which require:
•Low arousal levels
•For example, archery, golf and snooker
Extroverts prefer sports which are:
•High arousal levels
•Large, simple motor skills
•For example, rugby and boxing Social Learning Theory Bandura Unlike Trait Theory, Social Learning Theory suggests that rather than being born with characteristics we learn them from other people, especially from those we hold in high esteem.
i.e. – Parents, Coaches, Role Models, Friends and other significant others.
Behaviour changes depending on the situation and is therefore a product of our interaction with the environment.
“Personality is learnt by observational learning, modelling and intimidating behaviour, and through experience. Psychological functioning occurs as a result of environmental determinants affecting behaviour.” How social learning works? Demonstration – Important to observe performance.
Attention – look carefully for detail of movement.
Retention – remember the demo AND the teaching points / error correction.
Motor Reproduction – demo is only of use if observers can attempt a successful performance.
Motivation – the performer must be motivated to perform the action.
Matching Performance – the performer attempts to match the demo and to improve it. Can you think of any environmental factors that have effected your behaviour? Interactionist theory Lewin Combines trait theory & social learning theory.
This recognises that the trait theory and social learning theory both have a role in determining behaviour and personality.
More realistic explanation of personality?!
Different behaviours produced for different situations.
Suggests that we base behaviour on inherent traits that we then adapt to the situation we are in. Hollander's theory ROLE-RELATED BEHAVIOUR–
VERY CHANGEABLE DEPENDING
ON THE ROLE. TYPICAL RESPONSE–
THE WAY YOU RESPOND
TO ENVIRONMENTAL DEMANDS. PSYCHOLGICAL CORE–
THE REAL YOU. Can you think of a sports personality that you can apply to this theory? Example of Hollander's theory What are the 3 most important words in these definitions? 1.Personality 2.Triat 3.Interactionist 4.Hollander 5.Eysenck Social learning Evaluation of Interactionist theory Explains twice as much as trait and social learning theory.
Offers an explanation of why the personalities of sportsmen can change in different situations.
Not too simplistic
It is used by most psychologist presently. Social learning theory evaluation Does not take into account genetic factors.
suggests why people become interested in sport.
Suggests why people adopt healthy, active lifestyles.
Only provides one explanation. Girdano