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Science I.S Respiration.

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david pike

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Science I.S Respiration.

Science I.S Project:
'Going For Gold'
Respiration By David. Pike Breathing: Athletes: Athletes (continued): Evidence based on monitoring may indicate that changes in fitness or health might need to be put forward. This often means that changes to a training schedule or diet might have to be made in order to accommodate the person and their needs. The athlete may have to incorporate more of one nutrient in their diet (this is a change in diet). Or, they could have to train slightly less, in result (this would be a change to their training schedule). Breathing is something that we use our heart for. The heart is a vital organ in the circulatory system. We need to breath to stay alive.

During breathing our chest gets bigger, and then goes back to normal size again, as it contracts.

When we exercise, we breath harder, as our pulse rate increases (our heart beats quicker).
It does this because it is trying to pump blood round the body quicker, to get more oxygen and glucose to the cells in the body, for RESPIRATION.

The scientific name for breathing is ventilation. Athletes are monitored to keep track of their progress or in some cases, lack of progress. It is important that athletes stay healthy, by eating a balanced, healthy diet. This would include having lots of carbohydrate (starch), to provide energy, and including the right amounts of each food group (such as protein, fiber, etc.). They would also need to not smoke, as to not damage other organs in the body. If athletes have a knowledge of how breathing works, it can help them master the technique of breathing in more air; it will allow them to last longer when doing their specialized sport. Athletes (continued):
There are lots of different types of exercise machines, that are designed for specific purposes, to work on a certain area of an athlete's or trainer's body. Such as a tread-mill, designed to work on a person's thighs, and to also improve general, overall fitness.

There are some different people who will help an athlete improve at their sport (s). Such as a personal trainer, who personally helps the athlete to work on their focus, to improve and 'push them'. Another person is a dietitian, who would advise the athlete what, how much and when to to eat and drink certain things.

Certain products have been designed to help athletes in what they do. These are called consumer products. An example of a consumer product is a sports drink, such as 'luxade sport'; it is for athletes, to help them. Sports drinks often have lots of glucose in them and this goes directly into the cells - this is what helps. Scientists who specifically study sport in their job (sports scientist), widen and build on our knowledge of respiration in the body, and of how organs work. This knowledge can be used to create new, beneficial consumer products for athletes, to help them. Athletes must be tested to detect illegal substances (e.g: Drugs), that they may have taken to try to unnaturally improve their performance. Not only having the illegal drugs is illegal, taking them to increase your performance is, also. This testing process is carried out in the Olympic/Para Olympic games. Respiration: Substances from both food and in the air are needed to keep us alive. These substances are oxygen and glucose. These are what react in the process of respiration to release energy.

Aerobic respiration is with oxygen. The word equation for aerobic respiration is:

glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

In aerobic respiration glucose and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide and water, which then gives us energy. Aerobic respiration only occurs if oxygen is included in the process. Some organisms respire anaerobically, this is called anaerobic respiration, and does not include oxygen in it.
Some organisms have the ability to respire anaerobically, without the need of oxygen. People who are more active require more food, to give them more energy.

During activity, oxygen requirements also go up, to support respiration. Functions of the Parts of the Respiratory System: Part number '7' on the diagram is the trachea. This is a long pipe that channels air down it into the right and left lungs. Part number '6' on the diagram is the epiglottis. This part's function is to stop food going down the trachea and entering the lungs, to avoid choking! Part number '9' is the left bronchus. This is another pipe that is a continuation of the trachea, to channel air into the left lung. Part '8' is an alveolus. These are tiny air sacs, where gas exchange occurs. Part number '10' is the diaphragm. This is a sheet of muscle, which moves up and down in the body, during breathing.

Part number '4' is the nasal cavity. This filters and warms the air, that is inhaled. Functions of the Heart & Blood Vessels: A Part 'A' is the heart. The heart's function is to pump blood around the body, to the organs and tissues, supplying the glucose and oxygen that is needed for RESPIRATION.

Red denotes the arteries in the diagram, which carry oxygenated blood around the body. The arteries are coming from the heart.

Blue denotes the veins, which carry deoxygenated blood around the body. The veins are going to the heart.

Oxygenated blood contains a higher percentage of oxygen, and a lower of carbon dioxide.

The opposite of this applies for deoxygenated blood. The smallest blood vessels are called capillaries. These are one cell thick; this becomes important when explaining gas exchange in the alveoli of the lungs. Testing Inhaled & Exhaled Air: We can test inhaled air (air breathed in) and exhaled air (air breathed out), by using lime water to test for carbon dioxide (CO2).

We pass carbon dioxide (which is a waste product of respiration) through limewater, making it bubble, and the limewater then turns from a clear colour to a milky colour.


The results show that exhaled air contains more carbon dioxide than inhaled air. Blow into here Limewater then
turns milky Gas Exchange In The Lung: Muscles in the chest allow us to breath properly, and they move air into and out of the lungs.
The diaphragm is the most important muscle involved with this. When we inhale (breath in), the diaphragm contracts and moves down, allowing the chest to contract. When we exhale (breath out), the diaphragm relaxes and moves up slightly. The external and internal intercostal muscles are also very important muscles involved with breathing, like the diaphragm. Enlarging the chest creates suction which then draws air into the lungs, which are elastic. Gas exchange is the taking in of oxygen into the cells in the body, and the releasing of carbon dioxide, as a waste product. Alveoli are very small air sacs, and they have an extremely large surface area. This speeds up gas exchange, because gas exchange occurs in all the tiny alveoli; this is a very efficient system. Oxygen comes in to the alveolus, when it has been inhaled. The black arrow on the diagram shows this. The oxygen then dissolves in the water on the alveolus wall, and diffuses (passes through) the alveolus wall and the capillary wall, which are both one cell thick.

At the same time as this is happening, carbon dioxide does the opposite, using the same process of diffusion, but going in the opposite direction as the oxygen. The carbon dioxide is to be exhaled. The grey arrow on the diagram shows the carbon dioxide. The parts of this system (breathing/circulatory system) all work together because they are all inter-linked. E.g: The trachea links and continues on to the bronchi which continues on to the other smaller parts in the long, e.g alveoli. They all work together to try and keep you breathing. Tissue Fluid & Capillaries: Capillaries are one cell thick, and this allows and ensures that tissue fluid can get to cells around the body. Lactic Acid & Anaerobic Respiration: When you exercise for long periods of time, sometimes the oxygen can not get to the muscles it needs to, so you then respire anaerobically. Anaerobic respiration can not break down glucose properly. (Anaerobic respiration only releases 5% of the energy from aerobic respiration!) A waste product is produced after you respire anaerobically - this is lactic acid.

The word equation for this process is:

glucose lactic acid (+ little energy) Lactic acid gives you a pain in your muscles, which can be quite severe! Problems of the Lungs: Asthma: This is a condition that affects the airways of the lung. When an asthmatic comes into contact with something that irritates their airway (an asthma 'trigger'), such as dust or pollen, they are prone to have an asthma attack. The walls of the airway (such as of the trachea or bronchi) tighten in, making them narrower and also inflamed. It makes them struggle to breath properly, and they have a reduced oxygen supply to the lungs, and therefore to the cells in the body. An asthma attack, if it is severe, can be fatal. Bronchitis: This is an extreme cough that produces mucus and is persistent, and comes on most days of the month, for three months, two years running. People who have this have breathing difficulties, and this disease results in reduced oxygen supply to cells, like asthma. BREATHLESSNESS is a problem caused by having too little oxygen. It makes the sufferer 'out of breath' and struggling for air. It usually happens to people doing exercise, or sometimes to people who are unfit. Absorption & Glucose: Absorption occurs in the small intestine (a large organ in the digestive system). I explained this in my last science project on food and digestion.

In the small intestine there are millions of structures called villi. The villi increase the surface area of the small intestine.
The villi have thin walls, and lots of capillaries to carry the glucose (also other nutrients) into the blood stream.
Here is a diagram of one villus:

Also, the villi are covered in micro-villi - these are even smaller. Importantly, in the small intestine, the glucose involved in respiration is taken into the blood, using the villi. Digestive System: Small intestine Many scientists in history have tried to find out what makes organisms living.

There have been many theories but the accepted theory is that, aerobic respiration produces up carbon dioxide and uses up oxygen. Conclusion & Extra Interesting Facts: This science independent study project includes information about: respiration, breathing, athletes and consumer products, and it talks about the breathing/respiratory system, the circulatory system and the digestive system.

I think I convey the information in an educational and interesting way, with use of text, diagrams, images and transitions.

Hiccoughs are spasms in the diaphragm.

Oxygen is known as 'O2' and carbon dioxide is known as 'CO2.'

Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, as well as starch.

Mrs Williams is a nice teacher!
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