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Lawrence of Arabia

Military History 9 Lawrence of Arabia
by

Scott and Tanner

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Lawrence of Arabia

Early Life Post-War Service in the British Army Ottoman Empire Arab Revolt Arabia Today Battle of Mecca Siege of Medina Battle of Taif Capture of Yanbu Battle of Aqaba Battle of Wadi Musa Battle of al-Samna Battle of Megiddo Capture of Deraa Capture of Damascus Lawrence was born illegitimately August 16th,
1888 in Tremadog, Caernarfonshire, Wales into a house named Gorphwysfa which is now known as the Snowdon Lodge. World War One
Lawrence of Arabia Lawrence of Arabia's life remained very eventful and lively even after his war-life ended In early June, 1916,most of the Ottoman garrison in Mecca had gone to Taif, an outlying military base, leaving only 1000-something men to defend Mecca Lawrence of Arabia lived in seclusion for many years before his death, and during this time acquired seven name brand Harley motorcycles. Unsurprisingly, Lawrence of Arabia met his death in a motorcycle accident, when he swerved to avoid two small children. On June 10th, the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, fired a pistol into the air, signifying the start of the Arab Revolt. Before his death, Lawrence of Arabia wrote an autobiographical account of his services and experiences in Britain and Arabia. The battle lasted a single night, with
few casualties on the rebel's side. Most of the Ottoman soldiers were killed in their sleep Lawrence of Arabia died in his home country of England after his fatal motorcycle accident, in a nearby hospital. After the battle of Mecca, British and East-Indian forces augmented the Arab troops, and prepared for an attack on Medina, an important city on the Hejaz railroad Losses were heavy for the Allied troops, led by the Sharif's son, Prince Faisal Eventually, the Allies retreated, realizing that it was in their best interest to leave Medina occupied Lawrence was the second eldest of 5 siblings, and spent almost all of his summers yachting in a lake nearby his house with them and his father. T.E. Lawrence was one of the British advisers to Prince Faisal in this battle After he and his family moved to Oxford, England when Lawrence was 8, he started excelling in all of his classes and proclaimed gifted As long as the Ottomans controlled Medina, they had to spend a large number of troops to protect the city, and more importantly, the railroad After graduating from high-school with honors, going to college, and graduating from there with honors, Lawrence decided to go on a 1,000 mile trek through Ottoman Syria, to study archeology and and history. In October, 1916, Sharif Ali led 7000 Arabs against Taif, an Ottoman military base. The Allied forces besieged the base, and after several weeks, and a pitched battle, the Turkish forces surrendered This greatly helped the Arab cause by giving them access to the armory at Taif, and a large amount of Turkish handguns Lawrence of Arabia worked in the British army on three seperate occasions. The first time was an undocumented work of Lawrence running away from home for a few weeks to work as a boy soldier in about 1905. The second occasion was during the first world war when he enlisted himself on the general listings to assist in the war. Soon after enlisting in the army and being recruited during World war 1, Lawrence was recruited to Arabia due to his advanced knowledge about the area and his expertise in archaeology and strategy. lawrences third installment of working for the British army was after the arabian crisis was over and he was being sensationalized by reporters and newscasts alike. He assumed a fake name and worked for the Royal Air Force until his death. Medina's garrison was commanded by the Ottoman general Fakhri Pasha On December 1st, 1916, The Turkish general Fakhri Pasha led two brigades of Ottoman soldiers to retake the city of Yanbu By December 3rd, Pasha controlled most of the city By December 7th, British and Arab reinforcements arrive By December 9th, Arab forces have control of part of the city, and 5 British ships have arrived On December 12th, Pasha calls off the attack and retreats to Medina General Allenby x5 they were supported by a regiment of British artillery led by General Edmund Allenby, and then-lieutenant T.E. Lawrence Alec Guinness Vs. 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 In July 1917, Lawrence set his sights on Aqaba, a small village on the Red Sea In the film, Aqaba is portrayed as a powerful naval base with 12-inch cannons, and a huge sea wall In reality, it was just a small village with a garrison of about 300 men The British wanted to take the village to deny German submarines a possible refueling point in the Red Sea The Arabs wanted to take Aqaba so the British could supply them when they made the push into Syria Because of Aqaba's virtually non-existent port, it could not be taken from the sea Most believed that the only way to get to Aqaba was to approach from the north, after crossing the Turkish mountains When Lawrence told his superiors of his plan to cross the deadly Nefud desert, they laughed at him When he told Prince Faisal, the prince lent Lawrence 40 men and told him 'go for it!' The Rebels successfully crossed the desert with only one casualty, and defeated the garrison at Aqaba with only two casualties Oh yeah, they also hired 5000 Arab mercenaries along the way The Ottomans were not happy with the large amounts of railroad under Arab control, so they sent a juggernaut force of a few thousand men and 3 biplanes to march the length of the railroad, with orders to kill any Arabs they saw Their entire force was destroyed by the first Arabs they saw On April 15th, 1918, The Arab forces suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Ottomans The Battle of Megiddo was one of the most decisive victories of World War One Over half the British Empire, France, South Africa, and six independent Indian nations joined the Arabs in a major offensive against the allied German and Turkish troops Vs. Can you guess who won? The battle was fought in two different locations in Israel and Jordan Several miles of territory were aquired in this battle, and over 10,000 prisoners were taken The Allies were led by General Allenby and Prince Faisal, and the Powers were led by Mustafa Pasha and Otto von Sanders *The Allies* Deraa was a smallish town with an airstrip, which the Ottomans used to send bombers over Arab settlements The British obviously did not enjoy this, and sent their own bombers against Deraa untill the Turks abandoned it At this point the Turks were losing the war badly, and for the Deraa garrison, the only place to go was north, to Damascus On the way, they murdered, pillaged, and raped at every village on the way to Damascus. When the Arab force under T.E. Lawrence caught up to them, the Arabs took no prisoners Near the end of the war, Allied forces were advancing toward Damascus unchallenged The leader of the Damascus garrison, Jemal Pasha led his men against the Arab cavalry force led by Lawrence Lawrence's troops won a modest victory, but the majority of the Damascus garrison survived Luckily, the Australian forces intercepted the garrison, and Damascus surrendered within a few days, officially ending the Arab Revolt In 1299, a Turkish tribal leader named Osman Bey announced his territory independent of the Seljuk Turks Over the years, many other small tribes would join him In the 1450s, the Ottomans took over Constantinople and officially became an empire Pasha means Lord in Ottoman Turkish Sharif means Lord in Arabic
The Ottoman Emperor was not just head of state, he was also the religious leader, or Caliph Railroads were very important for connecting all of the different parts of the Empire Arabia today is no longer united like it was briefly in 1918. The United Kingdom of Arabia fractured into different kingdoms which fractured into different kingdoms that expanded, shrunk, changed their names, or were conquered. Today we have the 12 countries of...

-Saudi Arabia
-United Arab Emirates
-Yemen
-Oman
-Qatar
-Kuwait
-Bahrain
-Israel
-Jordan
-Iraq
-Lebanon
-Syria This is unfortunate because it means a lot more wars could be fought than if they were all one nation Thanks for watching/reading our fairly long Prezi! Scott + Tanner 4 10
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