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Objective of the Proposed Project
Transcript of Objective of the Proposed Project
Statement of the Problem
Alexan Project and Circuits Volume 4
Electronic enthusiasts (Project and Circuit Volume 4)
The World Book Dictionary
Students should explore more in innovating technology operated projects.
For best results of projects, more time should be given.
Self-Operated Switch was named after its function. Its main function is to automatically switch on or off street lights. It increases security to residences in a certain community. On the other hand, the said circuit can also be used in other purposes, depending on the needs of the particular project.
Using the circuit as relay control in other inductive appliances.
It can also serve as current filter to prevent Incandescent bulb from damage.
It can also crack up the burglars, they might think that there is a person inside the house, since the Incandescent bulb automatically turns on and turns off.
Proper insertion/mounting of electronic components and wiring connections should be observed to have the circuit working. Each component should be soldered properly on the printed circuit board.
In our initial testing, we have encountered some problems with the circuit. Troubleshooting was the hardest part in the project making. We have to figure out which of the component or what part of the circuit is not working. After fixing everything, the circuit already functions.
Results and Discussions
Lessen power consumption because of automatic switch on/off, save money from paying overcharged electrical bills
Prevention of theft incidents and other case-related
Prevention of fire incidents, thus less worries and gives comfort to the residents of the community
Prevention of car accidents
To lessen power consumption
To increase security and safety of the people living in the certain community
What can the Proponents do to prevent high power consumption due to unattended street lights or lamp posts?
What measures can the Proponents do to lessen the power consumption?
This non-availability of sufficient current causes the relay to get de-magnetized and switches off any device attached to it (bulb in this case). Similarly when sunlight is not present “i.e. at night”, the resistance of LDR increases and hence the potential across LDR also increases.
This is what exactly happens during the daytime when the LDR resistance is extremely high. As it becomes dark, the LDR resistance decreases and at a certain darkness level, the voltage across it that appears at the gate is sufficient to trigger the triac. Now, the triac is closed and the bulb lights up. The bulb again comes to the OFF state only if the LDR is exposed to day light or switch, S is switched off.
Triod AC Switch ‘TRIAC’ is a power-switching apparatus as in the circuit; the circuit is active only when the LDR is exposed to darkness. The same voltage after division by the potential divider created by resistance and LDR appears at the gate. Since the TRIAC has a break over voltage less than the peak value of the AC input, the TRIAC will continue open as long as the gate voltage is insufficient to set off it to the ON state.
It is very cost-effective construction. Another thing, we do not have to employ or depend on someone to switch ON/OFF the light when we are out of station. A LDR and a TRIAC jointly plays the role of mechanization of the circuit.
At times, it is really annoying to see the street lights kept switched on during broad daylight. The present circuit of the night switch can very effectively put an end to these problems. This circuit can be used to light the streetlight, staircase light, and porch light etc. using domestic AC supply.
As we have observed in our community, street lamps are always forgotten to be either switch on/off. Residents in our community fail to remember switching off those lights due to hectic schedules and other concerns. As a consequence, the power consumption of the lights gets higher and higher every time. If street lamps are being overlooked, it can also cause fire that may damage the whole community.
Automatic night light control systems, which gradually gains popularity, needs no operation for switching on and off when there is need of light. It detects whether there is need of light or not, thus, making it more convenient to use. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically light switches on and when there is other source of light.
Street lights are very important in a community for different purposes. It increases security and safety to our homes. In a definite state of affairs, lamps could not manually switched OFF. Lamp posts have to be automatically switched ON at sunset and OFF at crack of dawn.
A well-designed, energy-efficient street lighting system should permit users to travel at night with good visibility, in safety and comfort, while reducing energy use and costs and enhancing the appearance of the neighbourhood. Conversely, poorly designed lighting systems can lead to poor visibility or light pollution, or both. Quite often, street lighting is poorly designed and inadequately maintained (e.g., there are large numbers of burned-out lamps), and uses obsolete lighting technology—thus consuming large amounts of energy and financial resources, while often failing to provide high-quality lighting.
These cost savings can also enable municipalities to expand street lighting to additional areas, increasing access to lighting in low-income and other underserved areas. In addition, improvements in lighting quality and expansion in services can improve safety conditions for both vehicle traffic and pedestrians.
The circuit is mainly built to reduce power consumption. It reduces human effort and time because it offers automatic switching on/off. The project makes use the principle of using transistor as a switch. The main components of this project are Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and transistor. The resistance of the transistor changes according to the light received by it. The LDR serves as the biasing resistor of this circuit. This project basically depends on light to function. Aside from no manual operation, it is also cost-effective. This project can be effectively used for automatic lighting of bedrooms, hostels, streetlights, garden lamps etc. to save power and reduce human intervention.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs dramatically (often by 25-60%); these savings can eliminate or reduce the need for new generating plants and provide the capital for alternative energy solutions for populations in remote areas.
Providing street lighting is one the most important responsibilities of a community. Lighting can account for 10–38% of the total energy bill. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing communities because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Self Operated Switch
Methods used in Developing the System
Development and Design Phase
Data Gathering Instrument
Methods of Research
Library Research Method
Internet Research Method