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Prepositions, Appositives and Phrases

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by

Riley Jenson

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Prepositions, Appositives and Phrases

They relate a word or phrase to another word or phrase.
Prepositions
Punctuate the Appositive Correctly
The important point to remember is that a appositive is
always
separated from the rest of the sentence with comma(s).

When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:
A hot-tempered tennis player
, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.

When the appositive interrupts the sentence, it looks like this:
Robbie,
a hot-tempered tennis player
, charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.

And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:
Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie,
a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.
Appositives
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it to explain or identify it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.
Riley Jenson and Eli Hark
Prepositions, Appositives and Phrases
Prepositions are often used in terms of location, direction and time

Examples:
A loathsome troll lurks

under
the bridge. (Location)
The train
to
Oxford always runs late on Fridays. (Direction)
Barnes was imprisoned twice
during
his lifetime. (Time)
Commonly used prepositions:

Aboard Beside Like After Below
About Between Near Against Beneath
Above Betwixt Notwithstanding Along But
Across Beyond Of Among By
Till To Toward Around Down
Under At Before Behind During
Except For From In Inside
Into Off On Out Outside
Over Past Per Since Through
Until Unto Throughout Up Upon
Via With Underneath Within Without


Examples
:
Jenny,
my lovely puppy
, almost drank my juice while I was in the other room.

Susan,
my neighbor
, is a good cook.

My mother,
a lovely women
, baked cupcakes for my birthday.

Ms. Elizabeth,
my vice-principal
, punished me for not doing my homework.

When I was in trouble,
my bold friend
, Danielle stood by me.
Made up of a preposition, it's object and any modifiers.

At the minimum, a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition.
The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiers to describe it.
These are the patterns for a prepositional phrase:

preposition + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause

preposition + modifier(s) + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause


Examples
Basic prepositional phrases:

At home
At = preposition; home = noun

With me
With = preposition; me = pronoun

By singing
By = preposition; singing = gerund
Prepositional phrases with modifiers
Complex Prepositions
A combination of 2 more 3 words that function together.
A combination of prepositions helps to create complete meaning.
Prepositional Phrases
Across from Because of In addition to
Along side of By way of In case of
Along with From under In front of
In spite of Instead of On account of
Examples
:
The sounds are coming
from under

the porch.
The mower is
in front of

the shed.
My house sits
across from
the store.
From my grandmother
From = preposition; my = modifier; grandmother = noun.

Under the warm blanket
Under = preposition; the, warm = modifiers; blanket = noun.

In the weedy, overgrown garden
In = preposition; the, weedy, overgrown = modifiers; garden = noun.
Verbal Phrases
Composed of more than one verb.

A main or principle verb tells us the action and is
always
at the end of the verb phrase.

Auxiliary verbs or helping verbs specify characteristics of the main verb. There can be as many as 4 helping verbs in a phrase, but they cannot stand alone.

Common Auxiliary Verbs:
To Be: am, is, are, was, were, being, been
To Do: does, do, did
To Have: has, have, had, having

Could
+
Swim
= Could swim

Could
is the helping verb (or axillary verb) and specifies characteristics of the main verb.

Swim
is the main verb (or principle verb) that tells us the action taken.

The mayor
has remained
in office for three consecutive years.
Has= Helping verb
Remained= Main verb

I
was shopping
for a new dress.
Was= Helping verb
Shopping= Main verb
Infinitive Phrases
An infinitive phrase begins with a infinitive.
[to + simple form of the verb]
It will include objects and/or modifiers.
Infinitive phrases function as nouns,adjectives or verbs.
Examples:
-
To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap
is Michelle's only goal tonight.

To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap
functions as a noun because it is the subject of the sentence.


-Kaitlin hopes
to win the approval of her mother
by switching her major from fine arts to pre-med.

To win the approval of her mother
functions as a noun because it is the direct object for the verb
hopes
.
Gerundian Phrases
A gerund phrase will begin with a
gerund
, an
ing
word, and will include other
modifiers
and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as
nouns
, so they will be
subjects, subject complements
, or objects in the sentence.
Eating ice cream on a windy day

can be a messy experience if you have long, untamed hair.

Eating ice cream on a windy day
= subject of the verb
can be
.

A more disastrous activity for long-haired people is
blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down
.

Blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down
= subject complement of the verb
is
.
Wild food adventures require
getting your hair cut to a short, safe length
.

Getting your hair cut to a short, safe length
= direct object of the verb
require
.
Participle Phrases
A participle phrase will begin with a present or past
participle
(word formed from a verb). If the participle is present, it wil dependably end in

ing
. Likewise, a regular past participle will end in a consistent

ed
.
Participle phrases always function as
adjectives
, adding description to the sentence. These phrases will often include objects and/or
modifiers
that complete the thought.
Examples:
The horse
trotting up to the fence
hopes that you will have an apple or carrot.
Trotting up to the fence
modifies the
noun

horse
.

The water drained slowly in the pipe
clogged with dog hair
.
Clogged with dog hair
modifies the
noun

pipe
.

Eaten by mosquitoes
, we wished that we had made a hotel, not campsite, reservations.
Eaten by mosquitoes
modifies the
pronoun

we
.
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