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TickBorne

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Chevaughn Campbell

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of TickBorne

Infectious Disease Tick Borne Ehrilichiosis General Info Caused by three different ehrlichial species in US:
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Ehrlichia ewingii
Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) Transmitted by bite of tickPrimary tick carrier: lone star tick Ehrlichiosis is an infection of white blood cells that affects various mammals, including mice, cattle, dogs, deer, horses, sheep, goats, and humans History Symptoms Fever
Headache
Chills
Muscle Pain
Nausea/Vomitting/Diarrhea
Confusion
Rash ( 60% children, less than 30% adults)
Difficulty breathing
Bleeding disorders Treatment Doxycycline is the first line treatment for adults and children of all ages, initiated immediately whenever suspected

Developing w/ in 1st 5 days
Fever subsides w/in 24-72 hours

Dosages:
Adults : 100 mg every 12 hours
Children under 45kg (100 lbs): 2.2 mg/kg

Standard duration of treatment is 7-14 days LYME A bacterial infection caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) and spread through the bite of the blacklegged tick.

The ticks pick up the bacteria when they bite mice or deer that are infected with Lyme disease. History Lyme disease was first reported in the United States in the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975.
In the United States, most Lyme disease infections occur in:

Northeastern states, from Virginia to Maine
North-central states, mostly in Wisconsin and Minnesota
West Coast, particularly northern California Symptoms Body-wide itching
Chills
Fever
General ill-feeling
Headache
Light-headedness or fainting
Muscle pain
Stiff neck Stage 1 Symptoms Stage 2 May occur weeks to months after the initial tick bite.
Paralysis or weakness in the muscles of the face
Muscle pain and pain or swelling in the knees and other large joints
Heart problems, such as skipped heartbeats (palpitations) Symptoms Stage 3 Can occur months or years after the initial infection
Muscle and joint pain
Abnormal muscle movement
Muscle weakness
Numbness and tingling
Speech problems Treatments 30 days Observation
Antibiotics
A person can begin taking the antibiotics within 72 hours of removing the tick. RICKETTSIAL Caused by a variety of obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria
Transmitted through fleas, lice, mites and ticks during feeding or by scratching infectious feces into skin
5 to 14 day incubation period for disease

History
During WWI, approximately 3 million deaths
During WWII, similar to WWI Symptoms Treatment RMSF (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever) Symptoms Treatment References Cartoon The Lymphomaniacs The End!! First recognized as disease in US in late 80’s ; not reportable until 1999.

The first diagnosed case of human ehrlichiosis occurred in 1986 in a 51-yr-old man from Detroit who had been exposed to ticks in a rural area of Arkansas.

In 1994, another type of human ehrlichiosis was recognized following a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association that detailed 12 cases of an ehrlichial illness that had occurred in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1990 through 1993.

In 2001, research revealed that the organisms that cause ehrlichiosis in horses (E. equi), in sheep and cattle (E. phagocytophilum), and in humans (‘HGE agent’) were the same. General malaise
Fever
Headache
Nausea/Vomiting
Rash 200 mg of Doxycycline daily for 3-14 days

Specific type and duration of antibiotic may vary Tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii.
Potentially fatal human illness in America
Is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected tick species.

History
A US Army physician in Boise, Idaho, was the first to recognize the infection and described RMSF in 1896. fever
headache
abdominal pain
vomiting
muscle pain

A rash may also develop, but is often absent in the first few days, and in some patients, never develops. Doxycycline is the first line treatment for adults and children of all ages.

The initial diagnosis is made based on clinical signs and symptoms, and medical history. http://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/
http://www.cdc.gov/rmsf/http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228042-overview
Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Lyme Disease." Lyme Disease. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002296/>."Lyme Disease Symptoms and Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, 17 Jan. 0075. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/arthritis-lyme-disease>."Lyme Disease." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 01 Oct. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/>.
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rickettsial-spotted-and-typhus-fevers-and-related-infections-anaplasmosis-and-ehrlichiosis.htm
www.cehs.siu.edu/fix/medmicro/ricke.htm
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7624/?report Questions 1. What region of the United States is NOT effected by Ehrlichiosis?

a) Region 1 ( from New Mexico up to Montana and over to California)
b) Region 2 (Texas over to North Carolina and down to Florida)
c) Region 3 ( North Dakota down to Kansas over to Kentucky and up to Michigan)
d) Region 4 (Virginia up the coast to Maine) Answer A. 2. What state was lyme disease first reported?

a) Rhode Island
b) New York
c) Connecticut
d) New Mexico Answer C. 3. What is the incubation period for Rickettsial?

a) 1-4 days
b) 5-14 days
c) 15-20 days
d) 21-28 days Answer B. 4. What is the treatment for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and every other tick borne disease?

a) Penicillin
b) Azithromycin
c) Doxycycline
d)Mafenide Answer C. Removal of Ticks.... News about Lyme Disease... Prevention No vaccines at present time
Antibiotics not recommended for prophylaxis
Should not be prescribed to asymptomatic people exposed to ticks
Best prevention is to minimize exposure when traveling to endemic areas
Proper use of insect repellent
Self-examination after visits to infected areas
Wear protective clothing
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