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Cultural Geography Project

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Mackenzie K.

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Cultural Geography Project

Religions practiced in Ireland
- Ireland 's constitution grants freedom of religion.
- 84.2% of Ireland 's population are followers of the Roman Catholic Church. Only 1.9% are non-Christian.
- 7.63% are non-religious or unanswered.
- Buddhism and Hinduism are spreading in Ireland with links between Buddhism and Celtic Religion playing a part in Irish literature.
- Islam is present at a larger scale than both Buddhism and Hinduism in Ireland.
- The Hindu and Muslim population are growing mainly due to

- Including Roman Catholic, there are more than 15 different sects of Christianity practiced in Ireland.
- The main sects include Roman Catholic, Church of Ireland, and Orthodox.
- The Church of Ireland is an Anglican church.
- The Church of Ireland encourages is members and followers to speak in the Irish language so classes used to be held for those interested in learning Irish and services are held twice a month in Irish.
- Many schools in Ireland are run by religious organizations, though lately many have tried to eliminate the teaching of religions in school, as many believe the delivery of the
of a singular religion while freedom of religion is present is unfair or unnecessary in public schools. Schools claim, though, to teach different aspects of different religions. Public religious schools cannot segregate their students based on religion, but it does exist that one religion is favored over another when accepting students.
Popular vs. Folk Culture
Music of Ireland
- The term for indigenous Irish music is quite simply, "Irish traditional music."
- Irish music has kept its traditional qualities even with international influences and
- Irish music has influenced international music, including genres such as modern rock music, and country and roots music.
- Fusion artists (who use some of their own style and incorporate traditional Irish style, in this case) have gained much popularity.
- Some popular artists and bands include Boyzone, The Dubliners, Damien Rice, members of The Wanted and One Direction, B*Witched, and many others.
- Choral music is quite popular as well, the most famous group being Anúna.
- Many rock, pop, jazz, and blues artists who are well known all around the world are originally from Ireland. Some of these artists include bands like The Villagers, The Blizzards, and Picturehouse, and solo performers such as Lisa Hannigan, Mick Flannery, and Chris de Burgh.
- The eighteenth century brought many eager classical musicians together to musical clubs (mainly in Dublin, Ireland). These clubs caused the number of classical orchestral performances to rise significantly.
- Irish poets, songwriters, and and musicians have translated old Irish songs and poetry into English and modern Irish for the people of today.
- Some early Irish musicians gained a crowd in places outside of Ireland, such as Britain or France.
- Before the collapse of Gaelic Ireland in the eighteenth century, attending concerts of harp musicians was a popular choice among aristocrats.
- Traditional Irish dance music incorporates instruments such as reels, hornpipes, and jigs, and the nineteenth century folk music instruments include flute, fiddle, and the uilleann pipes. The songs that they accompany include ballads, laments, drinking songs, and others. The twentieth century brought instruments like the button accordion and the concertina, and Irish stepdance began to gain popularity. Folk music and dance are an important part of any Irish celebration.

Cultural Geography Project







History of Ireland
From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions brought chaos to Ireland's various regional dynasties. Norman invasion of the late 12th century marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct English involvement in Ireland. Prince John Lackland, son of Henry II of England, was made Lord of Ireland. He started the military and political defeat of the original and cultural Gaelic Ireland in early 17th century. The 1613 overthrow of the Catholic majority, known as a sort of
culture complex
, in the Irish Parliament was realized through new districts which were dominated by new settlers. Recusant Roman Catholics (85% of population) banned from the Irish Parliament by the late 1700s. Protestant domination of Ireland was confirmed after two periods of war between Catholics and Protestants. The Irish Parliament, a
, was abolished in 1801 in the wake of the Republican United Irishmen Rebellion and Ireland became an important part of the U.K under the Act Of Union. Their ideals traveled through
contagious diffusion
, as they spread rapidly through Ireland. In 1922 after the Irish War of Independence and the Anglo-Irish treaty, the larger part of Ireland seceded from the U.K to become independent Irish Free State.

HDI (2012) - 0.916
GDP (2012) - Per Capita: 45,835.75 USD
Total: 66.6 USD
Population (2012) - 4.589 million
Literacy Rate (2012) - 99% of ages 15 and above
Food of Ireland
Language of Ireland
Ethnicity Recognized in Ireland
The Environment of Ireland
Tourist Destinations
Cliffs of Moher:
an undulating landscape suddenly ends in a sheer drop of more than 650 feet, straight down to the Atlantic
the most important early Christian sights in the valley of the two lakes. Two round towers, Saint Kevin's Kitchen (actually a church), and a Cathedral ruin.
The Giant's Causeway:
strangely regular basalt columns point the way towards Scotland, which is seen on the Horizon on good days.
Trinity College:
founded in the 16th century by Queen Elizabeth I, this college holds the iconic book of Kells, and alumni like Oscar Wilde and Samuel Beckett.
Vibha Deshiikan, Inna Reichner, and Mackenzie Krish
- (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Ireland
- (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland
- (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Ireland
- (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Ireland
- Casey, Y. (0). Retrieved from (YouTube.com - .Traditional Irish Music Session - Launch Party for www.oaim.ie from Doolin Co. Clare .)
- Andrea Saldivia Morales (, October). Arts and musicin southern ireland [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://andreasaldiviamorales.blogspot.com/2011/10/introduction-for-small-countryireland.html
- Ian Girdwood. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ljhsigirdwood.pbworks.com/w/page/21075822/Major Religions Graph
- Red Mum. (, October). Blogspot [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://redmum.blogspot.com/2005/10/fast-food-outlets-outnumber-churches.html
- Joseph Miller. (n.d.). Retrieved from (YouTube: Irish Folk Culture Documentary)
-(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.authenticireland.com/irish folk music/
- Stacey Baker. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://6thfloor.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/06/whats-up-with-those-irish-dancing-costumes/?_r=0
- There are seen differences in culture between urban and rural residents, between Catholics and Protestants, and between English speakers and Irish speakers. There are differences between immigrants and natives, the travelers and the settled, and between residents of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
- Irish folk and dance are still popular in the modern world.
- In the twentieth century though, these decreased in popularity and are not as important as they used to be especially in urban, modernizing areas.
- People had begun to become more attracted towards the music of Britain and the United States which caused Jazz and Rock and Roll to rise in popularity in Ireland.
- In the 1960's an interest in reviving Irish tradition rose.
- Now, many artists choose to incorporate styles of folk and traditional Irish music into their modern style. These artists are called fusion artists.
- Religions are spread through immigration.
- An example of

popular culture

folk culture
: Irish folk music is said to be the strongest survivor against

and music related influences of all the countries of Europe as it was not used largely as a battlefield during either World War. But Irish traditional music is not the only music popular in the country of course, as Ireland as a whole has been influenced by the music of today.
- An example of popular culture versus folk culture: Hurling, a popular sport in Ireland, is as old as Ireland itself and some of its rules have been written in old Gaelic. It has been popularized once again through modern institutions who wish to keep this once folk trait alive within the country among all citizens, native or not. These institutions can be examples of sociofacts.
-As some strong folk traditions change, adapt, and modernize, they are practicing
. An example of this that pertains to Ireland: During celebrations and gatherings, only the performers may wear traditional Irish clothing, but the guests may show up in typical Western clothing. This doesn't make it a "Western celebration" of course, they are still practicing an Irish tradition.
- Halloween traditions were popularized in North America by Scottish and Irish migrants, an example of

stimulus diffusion
- The western world has had its influences on Irish food as well, such as fast-food culture from the United States. This has increased heart disease and obesity rates significantly.
-The custom of pub culture is still strong in the modern times, for a place of music, meetings and gatherings. This also means that overall alcohol consumption rate is still in the high level though.
- Holidays and festivals on the Irish calendar are still eventful of old
and traditions, but later Christian traditions have their influences as well.
The main language spoken in Ireland is English, although in parts of the country, particularly the western coast, Irish is still in use. These areas are

culture realms
, and are collectively known as the "Galetacht" composed mainly of countries Cork, Kerry Galway, Mayo, and Donegal. The survival of the language is encouraged and promoted by the Gaeltacht ministry, formed in 1956. Within the Galetacht area approximately 75% of the population are Irish speaking. Irish is a Celtic language with Indo-European roots sometimes referred to as Gaelic. It should be correctly defined as Irish Gaelic, as Gaelic is also used to refer to the Scottish language. The name Gaelic is derived from the word Gale the name given to the Celts. The Irish word for the language is "Gaelige". Around 30% of the 3.5m population are able to speak Irish, and 5% use it regularly.
Though some English is based on Irish language forms, English is almost totally dominant in social, economic and cultural contexts. English came to Ireland in the 17th Century where settlers were forbidden from talking to natives. The English language
diffused hierarchically
Because the English were in power their language became powerful and since Irish speakers were usually poor their language was then seen as backwards.
The 2011 Census, released by the Central Statistics Office Ireland (CSO), shows that Irish is the third most spoken language in the country, after English and Polish. The Census found that 82,600 in Ireland speak Irish outside of school (where it is an obligatory subject). The CSO also reported that 119,526 speak Polish at home and 56,430 speak French. In Gaeltacht areas (Irish speaking areas) 35 percent of people speak Irish on a daily basis. In comparison to the last Census the number of Irish speakers is up by 7.1 percent with 1.77 million people saying they could speak Irish. This means 41.4 percent can actually speak the language but simply don’t.
www.irishcentral.com › News‎

Staple foods-
Colcannon -a mixture of mashed potatoes ,kale or cabbage and seasoning
Champ-a mixture of mashed potatoes and spring onions
Potato scones-similar to biscuits or muffins
Food is a important part of irish culture
-Often a popular place for irish customs is a pub which is a great part of pop. culture in Ireland
The potato-would be known as a material trait of Ireland. It's an artifact of Ireland's folk and pop culture.
-In the mid 1840s much of it was destroyed by disease,causing famine
-Over 1,000,000 people died as result
Staple foods-
bread - an important part of Irish culture. Soda bread, a crusty brown bread made from baking soda instead of yeast, whole-wheat flour and buttermilk, is a national dish of Ireland. Many other types of bread and cakes can also be found in Irish bakeries.
cheese - Until recently the Gaelic tradition of cheese-making in Ireland had all but died out. A revival of farmhouse cheese-making began in the 1970s and has developed considerably since then. Irish farmhouse cheeses are individual and unique to each producer, with each type of cheese being produced on only one farm. Each cheese, therefore, has its own distinct character. Ireland makes about fifty types of homemade farmhouse cheeses, considered delicacies.
meat and sea food - Meat is eaten frequently at Irish meals. The most common meats are beef, lamb and pork. Irish reared lamb is used in many recipes from roast leg of lamb to Irish stew. Beef is the traditional Sunday roast. Since Ireland is surrounded by water, seafood such as salmon and cod is common in Irish cooking. Trout, scallops, lobster, mussels, and oysters are also caught and prepared locally. Prawns are popular in Dublin, and Galway is home to an annual oyster festival.
soups and stews - Since early times in Ireland, broths, soups and stews have been a mainstay of the Irish diet. Common ingredients in Irish soups are potatoes, seafood and a variety of meats. Irish stew has been recognized as the national dish for at least two centuries and is usually made with lamb or mutton and vegetables.

The economy of Ireland has been based on agriculture up to the 1960's with the population living largely in the rural areas. Since the 1960's policies to promote the establishment and expansion of modern industry have been incorporated. This has brought about a major enlargement of urban development that has changed patterns of agriculture and brought more intensive production.
Contributing to the quality of Ireland's environment is the high annual rainfall and prevailing southwest winds from the Atlantic. Air pollution is low and the watercourses are of a very high standard. The low population density over much of the country has helped to preserve the quality of the landscape.
Ireland has an environment similar to Oregon, very windy and very rainy.
Three are not many urbanized places.
It consists of lots of farms and rolling hills
many rivers, creeks, and streams
There is a diversity of ethnic minorities in Ireland. These include the Traveling community (21,000), which is the largest; Africans, Asians and people from the Caribbean (20,000); the Jewish community (3,000), (some of whom have migrated, mainly to the United States of America); asylum seekers and refugees.3 According to the statistics of the Department of Justice, Immigration and Citizenship Division, there are 33,000 legally registered foreigners living in Ireland in 1995.
(2012) 96.9% WHITE; 2.16 -87.9% Irish; 2.12 -5.0% British Isle White; 2.03 -2.0% Polish; 3.76 -1.0% Former USSR;
1.87 -0.7% American, Australian, South African, or Canadian; 1.56 -0.2% Other; 2.03 2.5% ASIAN; 1.19 -1.0% Chinese; 1.09 -0.5% Indian; 1.02 -0.3% Bangladeshi; 1.56 -0.3% Turkish; 2.03 -0.3%
President of Ireland speaking Gaelic on St. Patrick's Day.
Tá fáilte romhat!
Vocabulary Terms Used
Emigration: (Emigrant) A person migrating away from a country or area; an outmigrant.
Immigration: The act of a person migrating into a particular country or area; an in-migrant.
Mentifact: Symbolizes the central enduring elements of a culture, expressing its values and belief.
Popular Culture: Culture traits such as dress, diet, and music that are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies. (Class Notes)
Folk Culture: Culture traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Globalization: The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
Acculturation: Acculturation explains the process of cultural change and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acculturation)
Stimulus Diffusion: A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Custom: Practice routinely followed by a group of people.
Culture complex: A construct of a meaningful configuration of culture traits which comprise an aspect of major importance in the way of life of people.
Sociofact: the ways where people organize their society and relate to one another
Contagious Diffusion: A form of expansion diffusion in which an innovation (or other phenomenon) spreads across contiguous space after direct contact between the innovator(s) and potential adapters of an innovation (or other phenomenon).
Culture Realms: sets of culture regions showing related culture complexes and landscapes
Hierarchial Diffusion: A form of expansion diffusion in which an innovation (or other phenomenon) spreads over space from large places to progressively smaller ones, skipping the spaces in between. Contrast contagious diffusion.

Dia Dhuit, pronounced jee-ah ghwit, is a common way to say hello in Irish Gaelic.
Caife is
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