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Chapter 6 Telecommunications

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Barbara Andress

on 31 December 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 6 Telecommunications

Learning Objectives
Identify the various transmission media and topologies used in telecommunications networks.

Understand the fundamentals of wireless network technologies.

Explain the concepts behind TCP/IP.

Understand the seven layers of the OSI network model.

Section 1
Telecommunications and Networks
Networking the Organization
Merging computing and communications
Yields computer networks which are
More than the sum of their parts
II. The Concept of a Network
An interconnected/interrelated system
Metcalf’s Law – the utility (use) of a network equals the square of the number of users
Industry Trends – massively changed from government regulated monopolies to a fiercely competitive markets with many choices
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Telecommunications – the exchange of information in any form over a network
Business Application Trends – all these changes have caused significant changes in the businesses use of telecommunications
Internet2 – a high performance network using an entirely different infrastructure from the public Internet; used mostly by universities (educational), research, and government
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Internet Networking Technologies – open systems with unrestricted connectivity using Internet networking technologies
Open Systems – IS using common standards for h/w, s/w, applications, and networking
Middleware – programs that mediate between other programs; an essential part of IT infrastructure because it joins disparate systems
Wireless technologies
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Cut costs, shorten lead/response times, improve collaboration, support e-commerce
The Internet Revolution – a “network of networks”, the largest and most important network, constantly expanding
Internet Service Providers (ISP) – provides easy access to the Internet
Internet Applications – browsing the Net, email, instant messaging
The Business Value of the Internet
The Business Value of the Internet
Telepresence: GE Does Training and Meetings Face to Face , but Virtually
What is the ultimate competitive advantage?

What did GE want to reduce/eliminate from meetings and training?

How did participants respond to the meetings?

How would you feel about this type of meeting? This type of training?
Intranet dashboard Revs Up Audi Australia
What was Audi’s problem?
Why was the old portal a problem?
What did they want to do with the portal?
What solution did iD provide?
The NFL Scores with New Extranet
According to the case, in 1997 the NFL was the first major sport league to do what?
By 2008, what had happened? What had happened in that time?
What solution did the NFL provide?
How does this help the NFL from a business standpoint?
V. The Role of Intranets
Intranet – a private internal network using Internet technologies
The Business Value of Intranets – an enterprise information portal supporting communications and collaboration
Communications and Collaboration – improved by Intranets
Web Publishing – developing and publishing hyperlinked multimedia documents
Business Operations and Management – develop/deploy critical applications supporting operations and managerial decision making
Intranet Portal Management – managed by IS/IT professionals
VI. The Role of Extranets
Extranet – A private network using Internet technologies (intranet) opened to select external entities for purposes of communications
Purpose – interconnect the business with its suppliers/customers/business partners
VI. The Role of Extranets
Extranets connect the internetworked enterprise to customers, suppliers, and trading partners
Section 2

Telecommunications Network Alternatives
I. Telecommunications Alternatives

Telecommunications is a highly technical, rapidly changing field, but most business professional do not need detailed knowledge of these details
II. Telecommunications Network Model – 5 basic components:
Terminals – any input/output device to transmit/receive data
Telecommunications Processors – support data transmission/reception between terminals
Telecommunications Channels – media over which messages are sent
Computers – interconnected by telecommunications networks
Telecommunications control software – programs to control telecommunications activities and functions
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks

A Network is defined by its geographic area and who owns the equipment
Wide Area Networks (WAN) – between cities/large geographic areas, LANs connected by common carrier or leased lines

Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) – LANs connected over a specific geographical area

Local Area Networks (LAN) – equipment owned by the firm, short distances, usually within a single building (or room)
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks

A LAN allows sharing of resources
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks

Virtual Private Networks (VPN) – a network using the Internet as a backbone but incorporating security for privacy

Client/Server Networks – a powerful, central computer (server) providing information and processing (services) to multiple end-user computers (clients)

Network Computing – a minimally-powered browser-based computer obtains its data and processing from the Internet
Wireless VPNs: Alternatives for Secure Remote Access

What is VPN?
Why is a VPN important to business travelers today?
What is the challenge of a VPN today?
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks

Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P)

Central Server Architecture – P2P software connects a PC to the central server with a directory of all other users (peers)
Pure Peer-to-Peer – PCs connected without any central server
IV. Digital and Analog Signals

Analog (continuous) – any value between the maximum/minimum value is possible (e.g., any frequency between 20hz and 20K hz)

Digital (discrete) – only certain values are permitted (e.g., 0 and 1)
IV. Digital and Analog Signals
Analog (continuous) – any value between the maximum/minimum value is possible (e.g., any frequency between 20hz and 20K hz)

Digital (discrete) – only certain values are permitted (e.g., 0 and 1)
V. Telecommunications Media
Media – the physical pathway over which signals travel


Twisted-Pair Wire – pair of very thin copper wires twisted in opposite directions (noise reduction); cheap, easy to use, but low bandwidth


Coaxial Cable – central copper wire wrapped with insulator, an external wire braid surrounded by a cover; not as easy to manipulate, more expensive than twisted pair, but higher bandwidth
V. Telecommunications Media

Fiber Optics – hair-thin glass fibers wrapped in protective jacket (cladding), conducts light (photons); difficult to handle, expensive, but highest bandwidth

The Problem of “The Last Mile” – although a telecomm provider puts the latest technology to your door, your home/office is still wired with old fashioned technology, so all the provider’s efforts do not help once the signal reaches your location and you are constrained (limited) by the technology in your own home/office
VI. Wireless Technologies

Wireless Technologies – communications without wires
Terrestrial Microwave – earth-bound towers and line-of-sight radio signals, towers placed on hills and tops of building
Communications Satellites – also use microwaves, satellites in geosynchronous orbits, for voice, video, and data
Cellular and PCS Systems – use cellular technologies
Wireless LANs – cheaper than re-wiring a building
Bluetooth – short range wireless
The Wireless Web – wireless is becoming so popular that new wireless standards for the Web are appearing
View from Space: Satellite Farming for Greener Pastures
How are farmers using technology to better manage their farms?
How has NASA helped farmers manage their pastures?
How does technology enable farmers to better control their costs and outputs?
Around the World: Mobile Buying and Banking
How much did mobile shopping increase in 2009? What did mobile phone users do to make this happen?
What was the increase in mobile banking in 2009?
What is a point-to-point payment system? Why is it important?
VII. Telecommunications Processors
Telecommunications Processors – perform a variety of support functions in networks
Modems – Modulate/Demodulate – change digital signals to analog and analog to digital to use common carrier (voice lines) between computers; most common processor

Inter-Network Processors – connects networks; switches, routers, hubs

Multiplexor – allows a single channel to carry multiple signals at one time
IX. Network Topologies
Topologies – the structure (or “look”) of a network; 3 basic types: bus, ring, star

Protocols – formal rules for communications

Network Architectures

The Internet’s TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol – the standard protocol for the Internet

Voice Over IP – Internet telephony, replaces public-switched service
IX. Network Topologies
IX. Network Topologies
The OSI Model – a standard “reference model” for how messages should be transmitted

Layer 1: The physical layer
Layer 2: The data link layer
Layer 3: The network layer
Layer 4: The transport layer
Layer 5: The session layer
Layer 6: The presentation layer
Layer 7: The application layer
Ottawa Regional Hospital: Lowering Costs While Converting to VoIP
What was the problem with the old phone system?
What does the new phone system do for the hospital complex?
Why is this appropriate for a modern medical complex?
X. Bandwidth Alternatives
Bandwidth: the capacity of a network
XI. Switching Alternatives
Switching Alternatives – packet switching and other new ideas to replace the standard circuit switching of POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)
XII. Network Interoperability
Network Interoperability – common procedures and protocols so that anyone on a network can communicate with anyone else on another network
Understand the concept of a network

Apply Metcalfe’s Law in understanding the value of a network.

Identify several major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.

Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.
Learning Objectives
Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.

Explain the functions of major components of telecommunications network hardware, software, media, and services.

Explain the concept of client/server networking.

Understand the two forms of peer-to-peer networking.

Explain the difference between digital and analog signals.
Learning Objectives
Identify the various transmission media and topologies used in telecommunications networks.

Understand the fundamentals of wireless network technologies.

Explain the concepts behind TCP/IP.

Understand the seven layers of the OSI network model.
Learning Objectives
Section 1
Telecommunications and Networks
The Concept of a Network – an interconnected/interrelated system
II. The Concept of a Network
Mtcalf’s Law – states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).
Exponential Mathematical Growth
N(N — 1)
N =nodes (points of connection) on the network
3 nodes = 6 connections [3X3-3=6]
10 nodes = 90 connections [10X10-10=90]
100 nodes = 9,900 connections
1000 nodes = 999,000 connections
II. The Concept of a Network
Metcalf’s Law – states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).
First formulated in this form by George Gilder in 1993, and attributed to Robert Metcalfe in regard to Ethernet, Metcalfe's law was originally presented, circa 1980, not in terms of users, but rather of "compatible communicating devices" (for example, fax machines, telephones, etc). Only recently with the launch of the internet and Web 2.0 design did this law carry over to users and networks as its original intent was to describe Ethernet purchases and connections. [The law is also very much related to economics and business management, especially with competitive companies looking to merge with one another.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3a3dShtgZY
I. Networking the Organization
Critical Mass of Users
limited use if only you and your best friend have one
every time you add a new user to a network the value of that network exactly doubles
Merging computing and communications yields computer networks which are more than the sum of their parts.
The Internet reached critical mass in 1993
2.5 million host computers on the network
November 1997
25 million host computers on the network
the number of users on the Internet in April 2011 topped 1.96 billion
Until a critical mass of users is reached
A change in technology affects only the technology
Change in Technology

Telecommunications – the Exchange of Information in Any Form Over a Network
Early telecommunications networks did not use computers to route traffic and were much slower than today’s computer-based networks, major trends occurring in the field telecommunications have a significant impact on management decisions
I
II. Trends in Telecommunications
Technology Trends
Industry Trends – massively changed from government regulated monopolies to a fiercely competitive markets with many choices
Growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web has spawned a host of new telecommunications products, services, and providers
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Industry Trends
Internet Networking Technologies – open systems with unrestricted connectivity using Internet networking technologies

III. Trends in Telecommunications
Web browser suites
HTML Web page editors
Internet and intranet servers
Network management software
TCP/IP Internet networking products
Network security firewalls
The trend has reinforced previous industry and technical moves toward building client/server networks on open systems with unrestricted connectivity using Internet networking technologies as their technology platform
Based On An
OpenSystems Architecture
Information systems that use common standards for hardware, software, applications, and networking
Create a computing environment that is open to easy access by end users and their networked computer systems
Provide greater connectivity
ability of networked computers and other devices to access and communicate with one another easily and share information.

Open Systems
The term middleware is used to describe separate products that serve as the glue between two applications. It is, therefore, distinct from import and export features that may be built into one of the applications. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because it connects two sides of an application and passes data between them. Common middleware categories include:
ESBs
TP monitors
DCE environments
RPC systems
Object Request Brokers (ORBs)
Database access systems
Message Passing
Technology Trends
Middleware – programs that mediate between other programs; an essential part of IT infrastructure because it joins disparate systems
Software that connects two otherwise separate applications. For example, there are a number of middleware products that link a database system to a Web server. This allows users to request data from the database using forms displayed on a Web browser, and it enables the Web server to return dynamic Web pages based on the user's requests and profile.
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Telecommunications systems have depended on voice-oriented analog transmission systems
designed to transmit the variable electrical frequencies generated by the sound waves of the human voice
Now converting to digital transmission technologies using computers
that transmit information in the form of discrete pulses
Change From Analog To
Digital Network Technologies
Industry Trends
Internet Networking Technologies – open systems with unrestricted connectivity using Internet networking technologies
III. Trends in Telecommunications
From Analog To Digital Network
Significantly higher transmission speeds
Movement of larger amounts of information
Greater economy
Lower error rates than with analog systems

Carry multiple types of communications on the same circuits:
Data
Voice
Video

Digital Technologies
Change from reliance on copper wire-based media and land-based microwave relay systems
To fiber-optic lines and cellular, communications satellite,
And other wireless technologies

Major Trends in
Telecommunications Technology

By using pulses of laser-generated light
reduced size and installation effort
greater communication capacity
much faster transmission speeds
freedom from electrical interference

Fiber-Optic Transmission Offers Significant Advantages
For organizations that need to transmit over global networks, especially to isolated areas, massive quantities of:
Data
Audio
Video
Satellite Transmission Offers Advantages

A Change To Other Wireless Technologies
Telecommunications technology is changing from copper wire-based media and land-based microwave relay systems
To wireless technologies
fiber-optic lines
cellular, communications satellite
An Increases the Number of Feasible Telecommunications Applications
Web-enabled e-business processes, e-commerce, enterprise collaboration, and other business applications that support
The Operations
Management
And Strategic Objectives
Both large and small business enterprises
III. Trends in Telecommunications: Internet2
Telecommunications – the exchange of information in any form over a network
High performance network using an entirely different infrastructure from the public Internet
Engineered specifically for research and education
Global Ethernet Network flexibility
Controlled network—without building it, the network that is needed—where it is needed
Internet2
Active participation in the development and testing of new applications and Internet protocols with an emphasis on:
on research and collaboration
focusing on videoconferencing
multicasting
remote applications
new protocols that take advantage of the many opportunities mega bandwidth provides
Internet2 network is connected via Abilene

network backbone that will soon support throughput of 10 gigabits per second
At the end of 2005, the team attained a speed of 131 gigabytes per second.
That’s roughly five full-length DVD-quality movies on the Internet in one second
Internet2 network may never become totally open; it might remain solely in the domain of universities, research centers, and governments
Overcome Barriers to Business Success

Examples of the business value of business applications of telecommunications networks.
IV. The Business Value of Telecommunications Networks
The Internet Revolution – a “network of networks”, the largest and most important network, constantly expanding
1991 – 10 servers
January 2004 estimated to have more than 46 million servers
with a sustained growth rate of 1 million servers per month
January 2007 estimated to have1 billion users
Today
294 billion e-mails per day
255 million Web sites
75 million servers in its network
IV. No One Owns the Internet
There are13 root servers that handle the bulk of the routing of traffic from one computer to another
Promote use of the Internet and the development of new communications standards
Internet Society (www.isoc.org)
World Wide Web Consortium (www.w3.org)
IV. No One Owns the Internet
ISP
Internet Service Provider
A company that provides access to the Internet
For individuals and organizations
For a monthly fee the service provider gives you:
a software package
user name
Password
and access phone number or access protocol
Internet Applications
Business Use of the Internet
Most Companies are Building Web Sites to Achieve Six Major Business Values:
V. The Business Value of
Telecommunications Networks
The Business Value of Internet –provides a synthesis of computing and communication capabilities that adds value to every part of the business cycle.
Collaboration among business partners
providing customer and vendor support
applications for e-commerce
marketing
sales
customer relationship management
cross-functional business applications
applications in engineering
manufacturing
human resources
accounting
Intranet – a private internal network using Internet technologies to provide Internet-like environments
A network inside an organization
Uses Internet technologies
Web browsers
Servers
TCP/IP network protocols
HTML hypermedia document publishing
Databases
V. The Role of Intranets
The Business Value of Intranets – an enterprise information portal supporting communications and collaboration

Communications and Collaboration – improved by Intranets

Web Publishing – developing and publishing hyperlinked multimedia documents

Business Operations and Management – develop/deploy critical applications supporting operations and managerial decision making

Intranet Portal Management – managed by IS/IT professionals
Enterprise Information Portal
Intranets can provide an Enterprise Information Portal for applications in Communication and Collaboration, Business Operations and Management, Web Publishing, and Intranet Portal Management
Telepresence: GE Does Training and Meetings Face to Face, but Virtually
What is the ultimate competitive advantage?
What did GE want to reduce/eliminate from meetings and training?
How did participants respond to the meetings?
How would you feel about this type of meeting? This type of training?

VI. The Role of Extranets

 Extranet – A private network using Internet technologies (intranet) opened to select external entities for purposes of communications

 Purpose – interconnect the business with its suppliers/customers/business partners
VI. The Role of Extranets

Extranets connect the internet worked enterprise to customers, suppliers, and trading partners
Intranet dashboard Revs Up Audi Australia
What was Audi’s problem?
Why was the old portal a problem?
What did they want to do with the portal?
What solution did it provide?
The NFL Scores with New Extranet
According to the case, in 1997 the NFL was the first major sport league to do what?
By 2008, what had happened? What had happened in that time?
What solution did the NFL provide?
How does this help the NFL from a business standpoint?
Section 2

Telecommunications Network Alternatives
I. Telecommunications Alternatives
Telecommunications is a highly technical, rapidly changing field, but most business professional do not need detailed knowledge of these details
It is necessary that you understand some of the important characteristics of the basic components of telecommunications networks
To help you participate effectively in decision making regarding telecommunications alternatives
Telecommunication Component Categories and Examples
Telecommunications Network(Conceptual Model)
•II. Telecommunications NetworkModel
– 5 basic components:
Terminals – any input/output device to transmit/receive data
Telecommunications Processors – support data transmission/reception between terminals
Telecommunications Channels – media over which messages are sent
Computers – interconnected by telecommunications networks
Telecommunications control software – programs to control telecommunications activities and functions
•III. Types of Telecommunications Networks
A Network is defined by its geographic area and who owns the equipment
Wide Area Networks (WAN) – between cities/large geographic areas, LANs connected by common carrier or leased lines
Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) – LANs connected over a specific geographical area
Local Area Networks (LAN) – equipment owned by the firm, short distances, usually within a single building (or room)
Global WAN
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks
A LAN allows sharing of resources
I
II. Types of Telecommunications Networks
Virtual Private Networks (VPN) – a network using the Internet as a backbone but incorporating security for privacy
Client/Server Networks – a powerful, central computer (server) providing information and processing (services) to multiple end-user computers (clients)
Network Computing – a minimally-powered browser-based computer obtains its data and processing from the Internet
Virtual Private Network

Wireless VPNs: Alternatives for Secure Remote Access
What is VPN?
Why is a VPN important to business travelers today?
What is the challenge of a VPN today?
Network Computing
III. Types of Telecommunications Networks

Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P)

Central Server Architecture – P2P software connects a PC to the central server with a directory of all other users (peers)
Pure Peer-to-Peer – PCs connected without any central server
http://www.blizzard.com
http://www.worldofwarcraft.com
Two Major Forms of Peer-to-Peer Networks
IV. Digital and Analog Signals
Analog (continuous) – any value between the maximum/minimum value is possible (e.g., any frequency between 20hz and 20K hz)
Digital (discrete) – only certain values are permitted (e.g., 0 and 1)
Telecommunications Media - the physical pathway over which signals travel
Twisted-Pair Wire – pair of very thin copper wires twisted in opposite directions (noise reduction); cheap, easy to use, but low bandwidth
Telecommunications Media - the physical pathway over which signals travel
Coaxial Cable – central copper wire wrapped with insulator, an external wire braid surrounded by a cover; not as easy to manipulate, more expensive than twisted pair, but higher bandwidth
V. Telecommunications Media
Fiber Optics – hair-thin glass fibers wrapped in protective jacket (cladding), conducts light (photons); difficult to handle, expensive, but highest bandwidth
V. Telecommunications Media
The Problem of “The Last Mile” – although a telecomm provider puts the latest technology to your door, your home/office is still wired with old fashioned technology, so all the provider’s efforts do not help once the signal reaches your location and you are constrained (limited) by the technology in your own home/office
V. Telecommunications Media
The Problem of “The Last Mile” – although a telecomm provider puts the latest technology to your door, your home/office is still wired with old fashioned technology, so all the provider’s efforts do not help once the signal reaches your location and you are constrained (limited) by the technology in your own home/office

How Fine Print on Your Bills Helps Big Companies in Taking More of Your Money
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec12/makingsense_11-28.html
VI. Wireless Technologies
Wireless Technologies – communications without wires
Terrestrial Microwave – earth-bound towers and line-of-sight radio signals, towers placed on hills and tops of building

Communications Satellites – also use microwaves, satellites in geosynchronous orbits, for voice, video, and data

Cellular and PCS Systems – use cellular technologies

Wireless LANs – cheaper than re-wiring a building

Bluetooth – short range wireless

The Wireless Web – wireless is becoming so popular that new wireless standards for the Web are appearing
•View from Space: Satellite Farming for Greener Pastures
How are farmers using technology to better manage their farms?
How has NASA helped farmers manage their pastures?
How does technology enable farmers to better control their costs and outputs?
•Wireless Application Protocol
•VII. Telecommunications Processors

Telecommunications Processors – perform a variety of support functions in networks

Modems – Modulate/Demodulate – change digital signals to analog and analog to digital to use common carrier (voice lines) between computers; most common processor
VII. Telecommunications Processors
Telecommunications Processors – perform a variety of support functions in networks

Inter-Network Processors – connects networks; switches, routers, hubs

Multiplexer – allows a single channel to carry multiple signals at one time
VIII. Telecommunications Software
Network Management – network operating systems and telecommunications monitors
Around the World: Mobile Buying and Banking
How much did mobile shopping increase in 2009? What did mobile phone users do to make this happen?
What was the increase in mobile banking in 2009?
What is a point-to-point payment system? Why is it important?
Comparing modem and telecommunications technologies for internet and other network access
Network management software monitors and manages network performance
Examples of the business value of business applicaions of telecommunications networks
IX. Network Topologies
Topologies – the structure (or “look”) of a network; 3 basic types: bus, ring, star
Protocols – formal rules for communications
Network Architectures- An organization's telecommunications environment including computers, software, communications standards, and transmission media.
The Internet’s TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol – the standard protocol for the Internet
Voice Over IP – Internet telephony, replaces public-switched service
IX. Network Topologies
The OSI Model – a standard “reference model” for how messages should be transmitted
Layer 1: The physical layer
Layer 2: The data link layer
Layer 3: The network layer
Layer 4: The transport layer
Layer 5: The session layer
Layer 6: The presentation layer
Layer 7: The application layer
The 7 layers of the OSI communications network architecture, and the five layers of the Internet’s TCP/IP protocol suite
Why four large retail chains chose different network technologies to connect their stores
Ottawa Regional Hospital: Lowering Costs While Converting to VoIP
What was the problem with the old phone system?
What does the new phone system do for the hospital complex?
Why is this appropriate for a modern medical complex?
Exponential Mathematical Growth
N(N — 1)
N =nodes (points of connection) on the network
3 nodes = 6 connections [3X3-3=6]
10 nodes = 90 connections [10X10-10=90]
100 nodes = 9,900 connections
1000 nodes = 999,000 connections
Learning Objectives
Understand the concept of a network

Apply Metcalfe’s Law in understanding the value of a network.

Identify several major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.

Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.
Key Term: Analog

Key Term:
Digital
X. Bandwidth Alternatives
Bandwidth: the capacity of a network

XI. Switching Alternatives
Switching Alternatives – packet switching and other new ideas to replace the standard circuit switching of POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)

XII. Network Interoperability
Network Interoperability – common procedures and protocols so that anyone on a network can communicate with anyone else on another network
Key Term: Bandwidth

Key Terms:
Network Interoperability
Key Term:
Bluetooth

Key Term:
Communications
Satellites

Key Terms:
Wireless LANs
Key Term:
Client/Server Network
Key Term:
Coaxial Cable

Key Term: Telecommunication Media
Key Term:
Extranets
Key Term: Fiber Optics
Key Term:
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Key Term:
Internet Networking Technologies

Key Terms:
Open Systems
Key Term:
Inter-Network Processors

Key Term:
Multiplexer
Kery Term: Intranets
Key Terms:
Local Area Network
(LAN)

Key Terms:
Wide Area Network (WAN)
The Concept of a Network – an interconnected
/interrelated system
Metcalf’s Law – states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system (n2).

Key Terms:
Network

Key Terms:
Metcalf's Law
Key Term:
Middlewre
Key Terms:
Modems
Key Terms:
Network Topologies

Key Terms:
Protocols

Key Terms:
Network Architectures

Key Terms: TCP/IP

Key Terms:
Voice Over IP (VoIP)
Key Terms:
Open systems
interconnection
(OSI)
Key Terms: Open systems interconnection (OSI)
Key Terms:
Client/Server Networks

Key Terms:
Network Computing

Key Terms: Virtual Private Networks
Key Terms:
Peer-to-Peer Networking
III. Trends in Telecommunications
Telecommunications – the exchange of information in any form over a network
Industry Trends – massively changed from government regulated monopolies to a fiercely competitive markets with many choices
Business Application Trends – all these changes have caused significant changes in the businesses use of telecommunications
Key Terms:
Telecommunications
IV. The Business Value of Telecommunications Networks
The Business Value that is created when a company capitalizes on the trends in telecommunications
dramatically cut costs
shorten business lead times and response times
support e-commerce
improve the collaboration of workgroups
develop online operational processes
share resources
lock in customers and suppliers
develop new products and services
Key Terms:
Telecommunications Network
Key Terms: Telecommunications Processors
Key Terms: Telecommunications Control Software
Key Terms:
Wireless Technologies
Full transcript