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IB Psychology

Electro Shock Therapy

Varun Manoj

on 22 November 2012

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Transcript of IB Psychology

A Biomedical therapy for a Major Depressive Disorder Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) What It Does? A small amount of electrical current lasting about half a second is passed through the brain.

This creates a seizure which lasts up to a minute which affects the entire brain .

ECT is usually administered 3 times a week.

Patients may need between 3 and 15 treatments. Placing Of The Electrodes Why It Works

Even after 50 years of research by Abrams (1997) it is still not completely understood how it works Evaluation of ECT can be split up into two categories Effectiveness Appropriateness ECT is often a last ditch treatment for a major depressive disorder. Its usually used for patients where psychotherapy and medication have proved to be ineffective. Extreme Treatment Bilateral ECT Unilateral ECT It could be that the seizure improves blood flow to the brain or enhances the transmission of neurochemicals. It is established however that it is due to the seizure rather than the electrical impulse. It is however recognized as the most effective short term treatment for a major depressive disorder. Evaluation ECT vs "Sham" ECT Substantial body of evidence to support the effectiveness of ECT "Sham" ECT- This is in affect a placebo, it has the exact same procedure i.e. the patient is anesthetized, however no electrical current is used. Studies that have compared the effects of ECT's and "sham" ECT's have found that ECT's have a more positive effect- (Gregory et al, 1985) ECT's have also been shown to be effective in treating cases of treatment resistant depression- (Folkerts et al, 1997) ECT vs Antidepressants Scott, 2004 found that from a meta analysis of 18 studies with 1144 patients that ECT is more effective than drug therapy in the short term treatment of depression Comer, 2002 states that 60-70% of ECT patients improved after treatment.

However Sackheim et al (2001) 84% of the patients that they studied had relapsed within six months of having ECT. Side Effects Impaired Memory
Cardiovascular Changes
Headaches Rose et al. (2003) review of research showed that one-third of patients complained of memory loss.

Department of Health Report (2007) 30% of patients who had received ECT within the last two year reported permanent fear and anxiety Ethics Beneficence
Autonomy Unilateral vs Bilateral Research has shown that Unilateral ECT's are less likely to cause cognitive problems than Bilateral ECT's Sackheim et al. (2000) Thank You Rapoport et al, (1998) 37 year old women treated for severe major depressive episode

It followed her separation with her husband and persisted for a year

She attempted suicide four times, once by deliberately crashing her car.

Psychotherapy and antidepressants had little effect.

After a drug overdose she underwent eight sessions of ECT for 3 weeks.

After the final session of ECT she showed a significant improvement with her depressive symptoms and had no more suicidal thoughts.

Later discharged and showed normal social and occupational functioning.
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