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Copy of The Era of Global Interaction: European Renaissance and Reformation
Transcript of Copy of The Era of Global Interaction: European Renaissance and Reformation
Cultural Reforms; Part I
Cultural Reforms; Part II
-More writers wrote in their vernacular language, and many translated the works of ancient Greek and Latin.
Philosophical and Intellectual Movements:
- Humanism: This movement, like most others things of this era, was derived from Greek and Roman thought. Humanism is an ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world. Humanism became present in the church, literature, art, and other scholarly pursuits.
Cultural Reforms; Part III
Social Reforms; Part I
-As previously mentioned, the authority of Europe was challenged during the Reformation, which was contributed to the skepticism movement.
Social Reforms; Part II
Social and Cultural Analysis:
Events and Reforms in Other Parts of the World:
Europe's Reforms' Effects on the Global Community:
Art and Architecture:
- Renaissance art is known for its dramatic use of realism, perspective, and its movement away from religious themes
- Individualism: Individualism is the concept that individual humans are capable of great accomplishments, and the belief in individual and their achievements. Innovation and progress is encouraged, and during the Renaissance, it encouraged scientific developments for the future.
- Secularism: Secularism focuses on the idea that the present world, and not the afterlife, could be a focus of human thought. Interest in the natural world peaked, and more detailed representations of the world increased, which furthermore, propelled the maths and sciences.
- Skepticism: This concept promotes curiosity and the questioning of authority. Specifically, challenges to the Church's authority is considered an impact of skepticism. This kind of questioning led to the Protestant Revolution, the Scientific Revolution, and the Age of Exploration.
-Among the many Renaissance artists were Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, and Sandro Botticelli.
- Architects of the time, especially, drew influence from the classical Roman architecture. They used architectural elements such as pilasters, columns, pediments, and arches. These architects created structures that appealed to humanist emotion and reason.
- Among these architects were Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Fillipo Brunelleschi. Brunelleschi is perhaps most famous for the ambitious engineering and architectural project of the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence under the Medici Family's patronage.
-While church music became more complex, secular music began to develop. Instrumental dance music thrived, as did improvisation.
- Polyphony, the interweaving of several melodic lines (usually four: soprano, alto, tenor, and bass), had its golden age. Polyphonic music of the Renaissance could be very complex and intricate, often obscuring the words and the meaning of the text which had been set. The Flemish Johannes Ockeghem is considered one of the Renaissance masters of polyphony.
- Others, such as Giovanni Peirluigi da Palestrina, tried to rid the church of its new worldly influences through polyphony. These compositions were purer, more restrained than the previous church compositions. The vocal chants were classic and crystalline amidst the rest of the composition.
-In England, composers and poets collaborated on a music style known as the English madrigal. They were cheerful and springy, however, many dealt with unrequited or spurned love, and these were generally quite sad.
-Literature had religious, secular, and classical influences, as well as political influences. This is seen in Machiavelli's works 'The Prince.' It presents political strategies that are still influential today.
-Important writers included William Shakespeare, Niccolo Macchievelli, and Dante Aligheri.
-The Reformation was the religious revolution that occurred during this time, and became the basis for Protestantism, an offspring of Christianity.
-Catholicism, the form of Christianity at the time and throughout the Middle Ages, was powerful and prominent in Europe. The papacy was deeply involved in politics, resulting in political corruption and manipulation.
-Many were content; however, religious reformers were not. These included Martin Luther (Lutheranism), John Calvin (Calvinism), John Wycliffe, and Erasmus of Rotterdam.
-Beyond Lutheranism and Calvinism, other Protestant religions that developed were Baptism, Anabaptism, and Presbyterianism.
- A display of the influential effects of Protestantism was the development of the Anglican Church in England by Henry VIII. This furthered the drastic religious changes and struggles of the time, and showed its immediacy in Europe, the prime motivator and controller in the Era of Global Interactions. Furthermore, they shaped the modern era, which could only meet fruition through the developments of the past.
-In this time, three variables existed within social division; wealth, political office, and age of family. However, these contending societal renderers were not always consistent.
-It was conservative in the sense that elite families at the top of that hierarchy married each other in order to stabilize their position. The inconsistency lay in the widespread upward social mobility by new men.
-Successful new men aggressively imitated their economically and politically declining status superiors. Sharp class divisions thereby blurred into continuous evolving forms.
-These open-elite patterns of social mobility, present throughout the early Renaissance, were examples of individualism.
-Merchants, artisans, and others could rise in class and wealth through their own ingenuity and business, generally without preexisting elite-ties. This is similar to a concept in the modern world, the concept of the American Dream. The writer James Truslow Adams defined the American Dream as, "that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement...a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position." (p.214-215 of 'The Epic of America). And so, this is another example of the lingering and influential thoughts and ideas of culture and social organization that affected the world.
- As such, aristocracy increased, as political powers had to use manipulation and cleverness to maintain their positions. Perhaps the most famous of aristocratic families during this time was the Medici Family.
-Like other aristocratic families, they were patrons of the arts, influential in the church, and constantly informed and aware of the present dangers to their power or chances to increase it. This political strategy is reflected in Niccolo Machiavelli's, 'The Prince.'
-Strategy and economic prowess on the part of these politicians led to the improvement of Europe as a whole- economy could prosper in intelligent hands, and Europe became a fit birthing ground for the Era of Global Interaction.
Europe's religious, art, literary, philosophical, and architectural reforms contributed to advancements in society in the aforementioned areas and in the European mindset. For example, these reforms set the path for further mathematics and scientific discoveries, as well as exploration into the Americas, the vast land bursting with possibility.
Socially, Europe's reforms followed its cultural reforms. Religion remained dominant as a deciding factor in social placement, but social mobility changed, as did the strategy of attaining status. These strategic advances opened the doors to exploration and control on a global scale.
Asian Isolation and Conflict
The Columbian Exchange
However indirect or direct, Europe had many effects on the world. For example, the triangular trade route and the rest of the Columbian Exchange were complex and profitable events essentially coming from Europe's reforms. This mercantilism contributed to the assumed superiority of the Europeans, as well as deforestation in Europe and the Americas, sugar plantations in America, and bridging the gap of limited contact with the Asian countries and achieving control.
Based on the evidence, it is fair to say that the changes and reforms of Europe during the Renaissance and Reformation led to countless developments across the world, during the Era of Global Interaction, the present day, and quite possibly, the brave new world that is the future.
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