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Transcript of Carbohydrates
Formation - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Sugars and starches:
Foundation - Junior Cert knowledge
Fibre: Brown bread, brown rice, skin of fruits and vegetables, fibre-rich breakfast cereals.
Made up of chains of simple sugars
Heat and energy
Sugar: Honey, fruit, ice cream, biscuits, cake, chocolate, sweets.
Starch: Bread, breakfast cereals, potatoes, pasta, other vegetables such as carrots and broccoli.
Fibre: Gives a full feeling and prevents constipation
The process by which green plants use energy from the sun to change carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
in the ration 1:2:1
Chemical formula: ....................
1 single ring structure
Chemical formula: ............................
Two monosaccharides joined together
Condensation reaction - water molecule removed)
Chemical formula: ........................
Many monosaccharides joined together
water molecule lost each time
Straight or branched chains
Non - sugar carbohydrates
Ring structure of glucose
Formation of a disaccharide - Maltose
Formation of polysaccharides - starch
These are also known as NSPs, dietary fibre and roughage
Cellulose, glycogen, pectin, gums
NSPs cannot be digested in the body and absorb large amounts of water
They aid the removal of waste from the body by a process known as peristalsis
Peristalsis is the muscular movement of food along the gut
Sources of NSPs include wholemeal bread, brown rice & wholemeal pasta
Refined foods contain few if any NSPs
Produce heat and energy
Protein 'sparers' - Allows protein to be used for its primary function (growth and repair)
Excess is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles as an energy reserve or converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue.
aids digestion - prevents constipation
gives a full feeling - prevents snacking
The importance of fibre (cellulose) in the diet
There is no RDA for carbohydrates as deficiency is rare.
In the western world there is an imbalance between
of carbohydrates consumed
Not enough cellulose
Too much sugars and refined starches
This leads to :
1. Obesity -
too much sugar and starch
2. Dental caries -
too much sugar
3. Bowel disorders -
not enough fibre
RDA for fibre is 25-35g
Equation for photosynthesis