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Carbohydrates

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by

Elaine Farrell

on 20 September 2016

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Transcript of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates
Formation - PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Biological functions
Sugars and starches:
Foundation - Junior Cert knowledge
Sources
Fibre: Brown bread, brown rice, skin of fruits and vegetables, fibre-rich breakfast cereals.
Structure
Made up of chains of simple sugars
Classification
Functions
Heat and energy
Sugar
Starch
Fibre
Sugar: Honey, fruit, ice cream, biscuits, cake, chocolate, sweets.
Starch: Bread, breakfast cereals, potatoes, pasta, other vegetables such as carrots and broccoli.
Fibre: Gives a full feeling and prevents constipation
The process by which green plants use energy from the sun to change carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.


Composition:
Carbohydrates contain:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
in the ration 1:2:1
Classification
Chemical structure
Monosaccharides
Chemical formula: ....................
Simple sugars
1 single ring structure
Disaccharides
Chemical formula: ............................
Two monosaccharides joined together
Condensation reaction - water molecule removed)
Polysaccharides
Chemical formula: ........................
Many monosaccharides joined together
water molecule lost each time
Straight or branched chains
Non - sugar carbohydrates

Ring structure of glucose
Formation of a disaccharide - Maltose
Formation of polysaccharides - starch
These are also known as NSPs, dietary fibre and roughage

Cellulose, glycogen, pectin, gums

NSPs cannot be digested in the body and absorb large amounts of water

They aid the removal of waste from the body by a process known as peristalsis

Peristalsis is the muscular movement of food along the gut

Sources of NSPs include wholemeal bread, brown rice & wholemeal pasta

Refined foods contain few if any NSPs

Non-Starch Polysaccharides

Produce heat and energy
Protein 'sparers' - Allows protein to be used for its primary function (growth and repair)
Excess is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles as an energy reserve or converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue.
Cellulose
aids digestion - prevents constipation
gives a full feeling - prevents snacking
The importance of fibre (cellulose) in the diet
There is no RDA for carbohydrates as deficiency is rare.
In the western world there is an imbalance between
types
of carbohydrates consumed


Not enough cellulose
Too much sugars and refined starches
This leads to :
1. Obesity -
too much sugar and starch


2. Dental caries -
too much sugar


3. Bowel disorders -
not enough fibre
RDA for fibre is 25-35g
Culinary functions
Equation for photosynthesis
Full transcript