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Reformation and Counter Reformation
Transcript of Reformation and Counter Reformation
Political manipulation and the sale of positions, in favor of particular groups or families.
Disrespect that some members of the clergy showed towards basic principles of religion.
Greed and ostentation shown by some members of the clergy, showing disrespect for the vows of poverty . Agustine monk. Martin Luther
October 31st 1517 he placed on the doors of the Wittenberg cathedral, his 95 Thesis against indulgences.
His ideas were based on the principles of Erasmus of Rotterdam.
(do you remember him?)
Against sale of indulgences
Does not recognize the authority of the Pope and the hierarchical authority.
Tries to eliminate all the payments that were made to ecclesiastical authorities.
Affirms that only faith in God can forgive and save souls.
Rejects most sacraments of the Church and it only recognizes baptism and communion.
Promoted the free interpretation of the Bible.
It promotes individual reading of the Bible
Promoted the mass said in German and not in Latin.
Recognized the right for priests to get married.
Rejects the idea of transubstantiation (Body and Blood of Jesus in the Communion)
Rejects adoration of the Virgin and the Saints. Reformation´s ideas spread to other places in Europe Henry VIII
Act of Supremacy:
The king was accepted as the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England.
Treason Act: Punishable by death to deny that the king was the supreme head of the church.
Thomas More John Calvin and Calvinism.
Published: "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Concept of Predestination.
France, Netherlands, Scotland, central and eastern Europe, Geneva.
By the sixteenth century, Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the international form of Protestantism. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Started in Switzerland a new protestant church based on Lutheranism.
Forbid images, churches were plain white, no music, Only Bible reading. No monks, no pilgrimages, no saints, and no Pope. Charles V (1519-1556)
Although he wanted to create an empire consolidated by Catholicism. He had many challenges at the same time. Problems with France (King Francis) and the Habsburg-Valois wars.
Problems with the Pope Clement VII who wasn´t always supportive (in spite of the fact that Charles was pro Catholicism.)
Problems with the Ottoman empire.
So Charles V allow the German kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire to select the religion of their subjects. COUNTER REFORMATION What? Movement directed by the Catholic church as a reaction to the Protestant Reformation. The goal of the Counter Reformation was to reorganize the Catholic church in order to keep their believers. It is also known as the Catholic Reformation. When and Where? 1545 Trento, Italy. Who? Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
Still a Renaissance pope, but admitted the Jesuits and allowed studying the condition of the church. Summoned the Council of Trent.
Society of Jesus: Ignacio de Loyola 1491-1556)
Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
Pope Paul IV (1555-1559) Inquisition, Index of Forbidden Books. Content It confirms the infallibility and supremacy of the Pope
It supports that the Bible is the source of authority and it is not to be interpreted freely.
Men have to do good deeds in order to reach salvation.
Encourages praise to the Virgin Mary and the Saints.
New religious orders.
Centers to prepare and educate priests.
Mass as a sacrifice and thanks giving.
Obedience from the Bishops to the Pope. CONSEQUENCES Consolidation of the power of the monarchies.
Religious autonomy in certain parts of Europe.
Strengthen of the bourgeoisie with the sell of some properties of the Church.
Development of individualism
Development of nationalism.
National languages, no more Latin.
A new sense of religiosity. REFORMATION Humanism. It awoke critical thinking.
Consolidation of monarchies.
Internal groups of the Catholic church who questioned its practices. Constant interference of the Catholic church in political matters.
The disrespect of the vow of chastity by some members of the clergy, who had lovers, got married had and or had children.
Imposition of tithe an other taxes to the Catholics.
Misappropriation of church funds that were obtained through tithe.
Increasing accumulation of lands and properties that did not pay taxes and were kept not productive. causes What was it about? Who? 1483-1546 Henry VIII (Anglicanism, separation from Rome) 1509-1547
Edward VI (only for 6 years) Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour) 1547-1553
Jane Gray (only for 9 days) Niece of Henry VIII (1553)
Mary (Catholicism again) (Daughter of Henry and Catalina de Aragón 1553-1558
Elizabeth (Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn. Protestantism again.) 1558-1603 Let us watch some videos...