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Energy Use and Consumption Around the World

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Anna V

on 16 March 2014

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Transcript of Energy Use and Consumption Around the World

Land and Wildlife
Energy Consumption and Production Around the World
By: Anna K. and Anna V.
Energy Production
&

Consumption

YOLO HEHE DEAL WITH IT
What are the main types of energy production?
Impact on the Environment
Which are the countries that consume the most energy?
Analysis and Evaluation
Works Cited
Energy can come from two groups, either renewable or non renewable resources.
Non Renewable Resources
Renewable Resources
Non renewable resources are those that
cannot be recreated
fast enough to replenish what has been consumed. In other words, they're resources that can one day disappear completely.
What amount of our non renewable resources are left?
How many years will we be able to depend on these types of resources?
According to this graph by BBC, many of our
mineral resources
could be gone in
under 20 years
. At the speed we are consuming our resources,
oil
could be gone in
37 years
and
coal
in
42 years
. Our
rainforests
would all be gone in
198 years
.
One day, sooner than most people realize, all of our non renewable resources will be gone and we will have to rely on different types of resources. If we can't find different sources of energy, we simply will not have any.

How can we avoid or solve this issue?
Bio & Fossil Fuel:
High use of
biofuel
leads to deforestation.
*Biofuel: solid/liquid/gaseous fuel obtained from recently dead or living biological materials.
The burning of
fossil fuels
produces around 21.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. It is estimated that only half of it can be absorbed by natural processes. This means that there is an increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon per year.
*Fossil fuels: solid/liquid/gaseous fuel obtained from long-dead biological materials.
Petroleum

Coal

Natural Gas
Types of Fossil Fuels:
It is toxic to almost all forms of life.
It causes cancer and birth defects.
There are many oil spills, some of which in bodies of lived-in water, and since petroleum if acutely lethal to [quickly kills] fish, those are caused to relocate or die.
It contains breakdown products and impurities that affect human health.
Toxicity and It's Effects
Climate and Weather
It causes:
Climate change
Acid Rain
& other dangerous things.
Exhaust/Petroleum Burning
Waste Oil
Usually when petroleum distillates are burned, the combustion is not complete, which leads toxic, polluting substances to appear in the air.
Substances released from burning petroleum affect the human and environmental health.
Used/Waste oil contains breakdown products and impurities, just like regular petroleum does.
The waste oil from cars drips on the ground, and evaporates, which means that toxic and and impure substances float all through the air. Once precipitation happens, it is dropped everywhere, in rivers (and other bodies of water used), mountains, homes, on animals, humans, vegetation... (*acid rain)
Greenhouse Effect
What is it?
What are greenhouse gasses?
When are these produced?
It is what happens when greenhouse gases (CO^2, etc.) in the atmosphere trap heat. It is what causes "global warming", and is melting the North Pole.
Greenhouse gases are gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation.

For Example: Carbon Dioxide (CO^2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).
Greenhouse gases are produced by both plants and humans. Where as one is for respiration, the other is for activities like deforestation, fossil fuel use, livestock farming and synthetic fertilizers and industrial processes.
Toxicity
It causes air, atmospheric, and water pollution.
Solid coal waste contains heavy polluting metals.
Coal particle pollution
shortens 1,000,000 (1 million) lives every year
.
Mercury emissions poison everything.
Wildlife
Mining Disasters:
It causes:
Destruction or displacement of species.
Degradation of aquatic habitats.
Elimination of habitat in general.
These disasters have happened in mines before:
Suffocation (because of the low oxygen levels)
Gas poisoning.
Roof Collapses.
Gas explosions.
Electricity Generation
Nuclear Power
Wind and Solar Power
&
Nuclear Power

Choppin, Simon. "Energy Use Around the World." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media, 02 Sept. 2009. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
Trimarchi, Maria. "How Much Power Does the World Consume?" HowStuffWorks. Discovery, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"How It Works - World Energy Sources: Electricity Generation." Canadian Nuclear Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Introduction to Major Energy Sources." Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.
Holzer, Daniel. "Examples of Non Renewable Energy Sources." Home Guides. Hearst Communications Inc., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Non Renewable Resources." NonRenewableResources.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
Schwartz, Ariel. "Visualizing All The Non-Renewable Resources We Have Left." Co.Exist. Fast Company, 5 July 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Electric Power Around The World." Global Electric and Phone Directory. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
Heat rejection: It expels heat to the environment.
It affects flora and fauna in enormous ways:
It uses rivers as heat sinks, which contaminates the river and its surroundings, involving animals that use that river as a water source.
It emits greenhouse gases, as well as radiation, which does affect human health greatly.
This lowers the value of surrounding property.
Works Cited 2
Nigam, Nirjhar. "Energy and Environment." GIS. Central European University, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"World Energy Consumption." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 May 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.
Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.
"Environmental Impact of the Energy Industry." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Jan. 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Wind Turbine Bird Deaths." The Ecologist. N.p., 29 Nov. 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.
Sharma, Dinesh C. "Green Energy Red-Flagged." The Hindu Business Line. N.p., 5 Nov. 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Environmental Impact Of The Coal Industry." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.
"Petroleum Oil - A Fossil Fuel." OfficialBioDiesel.com. N.p., 20 July 2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
"What Is Petroleum (Crude Oil)?" ESchoolToday.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
Kaufman, Rachel. "Ten Countries With the Biggest Environmental Footprints." NationalGeographic.com. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
Renewable resources are those that are
practically infinite
. They are recreated as soon as they are consumed and are generally more sustainable.
It expels sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, which causes acid rain.
Solar and Wind power generators do not emit carbon.
But there are serious complications related to these.
They lead to economic and social conflicts if they are even offered as primary sources.
Nowadays it is not obligatory to conduct things like Environment Impact Assessment on projects like these.
The problem is, that wind turbines are very dangerous towards wildlife, and that solar panels cause a lot of problems when installed . (i.e.~ They cost a lot, and (if installed in a home) do not produce enough power to keep everything working.
Wind turbines kill a large amount of birds every year.
Example 1: Since 2009, there have been 160 bird deaths caused by wind turbines, only in the area of Wyoming.
Example 2: A wind turbine company had to pay 1 million dollars for being the cause of the deaths of two Golden Eagles.
Petroleum
Petroleum ("meaning oil from the earth") is formed when the
remnants of animals and plants from millions of years ago
in oceans are covered in layers of mud. As the pressure and heat increases, the remains of the animals and plants become crude oil.
Petroleum is found in places deep under the Earth's crust called
reservoirs
.
To extract the crude oil, large drills that reach into the reservoirs are built.
Crude oil is then used to make many products. It is often sent to power plants, where it is burned and used to
produce electricity
. After being refined it becomes
gasoline and other fuels
, used to fuel motors in cars or other vehicles. Other products made from petroleum include
crayons, ink, bubblegum and deodorant
.
Energy consumption is higher in countries where less than
five percent
of the population lives under the poverty line.
The United States makes up less than five percent of the world's population, but it consumes
26 percent
of the world's energy.
Although renewable energy is better for the environment and is found in much larger amounts, it only makes up
17% of the world's total energy consumption,
four times less than fossil fuels.
If every Chinese citizen were to consume as much energy every day as your average American, China would use
11 million
more barrels of oil than can be produced in one day.
Energy demand in the United States grows by about
3 percent
every year, and this is the country that consumes the most oil.
Surprisingly, the country that
uses the most energy per person
is not the U.S., but rather
Qatar
. Qatar is a country that's oil rich, and electricity and water are free for the inhabitants of this small country.
China
is one of the countries that has increased its level of energy consumption at an incredible rate. It's energy consumption has
doubled
in less than 20 years.
Natural Gas
Works Cited 3
Just like petroleum, this source of energy comes from the remains of animals and plants that were buried under layers of earth. The pressure created petroleum, and it also created natural
gas. It is trapped inside the small holes in
rocks deep inside the crust. Natural gas
is actually a combination of different
gasses, and the main one is
methane.
What is it used for?
Because natural gas is odorless and does not give off smoke when it burns, it is often used in homes. It is used to heat buildings, for cooking and also to create electricity. Some products that use natural gas as a raw material are paints, dyes and antifreeze.

Natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels and does not release as many air pollutants into the atmosphere. Also, it is more reliable than others in that its pipes are located underground and are less likely to be cut off.
"Natural Gas." EIA Energy Kids. Energy Information Administration, n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
Klare, Michael. "What Will Replace Oil?" Salon. N.p., 27 June 2011. Web. 09 Dec. 2013.
H., Daniel. "Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Panels." The Hope Project. Hope Project, 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. <http://www.hope-project.org/energy/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-solar-panels/>.
"Mechanical Engineering." Mechanical Engineering RSS. Mechanical Engineering, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. <http://www.mechanicalengineeringblog.com/tag/wind-turbines/>.
"Natural Gas." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 25 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013. <http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/natural-gas.html>.
"We Simply Need More Wind Turbines." - E & T Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. <http://eandt.theiet.org/magazine/2011/07/we-need-more-wind-turbines.cfm>.
"Wind Turbine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Sept. 2013. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine>.
Wind Power
Solar Power
Energy production and consumption are greatly related to electromagnetism.
In our opinion, energy production still has many important changes to make.
Wind Power
Solar Power
Energy production and consumption are greatly related to electromagnetism. To produce energy and electricity, resources (coal, petroleum, etc...) must pass through a generator. In this generator, there's an electromagnet that helps to
In our opinion, energy production still has many important changes to make.
Energy production and consumption are greatly related to
electromagnetism
. The main relationship we found between our topic and electromagnetism was that in the production of energy, electromagnets are involved. The energy from various resources that we covered (coal, petroleum, etc.) is often transformed into electricity. For this to happen, the energy produced must pass through a
generator
. Here is where electromagnetism comes in, because inside these generators is an electromagnet.
Solar panels
actually capture electromagnetic energy from the sun and turn it into electricity.
After researching all of the global issues concerning energy production and consumption today, we have formed our own opinions in which resources we think will be the most used in the future and which will not be very successful in that aspect. Many predict that petroleum and coal will be gone in under 50 years, so these two are not plausible options, (aside from the fact that they are dangerous for the environment). We think one of the main resources that will take over these two is
natural gas
, even though it is a non renewable resource. (In the BBC graph it said that supplies of gas were low, but much more is being found). Natural gas burns much
cleaner
than petroleum and coal, meaning it does not contaminate as much. It is much
cheaper and convenient
, but one of the disadvantages is that it cannot be applied to everything (vehicles, for example).
Wind power is power obtained using the energy of the wind. It is the world's fastest growing energy use.
It is obtained by wind turbines.
Coal
It is used for the electricity created in the wind turbines' generators, to power up people's houses with electricity.
Wind turbines are basically enormous metal windmills. They have a cabin, called the nacelle, at the top, connected to the rotor, and the blades. These spin with the wind, and this causes the insides of the nacelle to spin too. First the main shaft, which spins the gearbox, which of course is connected to a generator that produces electricity.
Lastly, we believe that the two other resources that will be very important in the future are
wind and solar power
. They are quite efficient and do not contaminate, but one of the problems is that they cannot be stored, they have to be consumed right after they are produced. All of the ways of producing energy we have found have flaws in them, so we will have to find
new ways of making energy
if we want to completely substitute oil and coal.
This produces not as much energy as would be needed to power up so many things, so somewhere along the way, the energy is increased by a transformer.
There are many types of wind turbines. The following are only some.
Solar power is power harnessed from the energy of the sun's rays.
It is used to create electricity, which is then used for plugs and other things in people's homes.
It is obtained with panels that absorb the energy from the sun rays and convert it into electricity.
So, how does it work?
First, the solar panels absorb this energy. This energy is then converted into electricity with a generator. This electricity runs through a transformer, and is sent to a house's breaker box, which adjusts it to plugs and other electronic things.
Air Emissions
Water Use
At a power plant, while burning natural gas, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are produced, all greenhouse gasses.
Some of these can also be emitted because of leaks and losses during transportation.
Natural gas does not emit these as much as coal or petroleum, yet it still affects the environment.
The burning of natural gas takes little water, but the cooling takes way more. The water is taken from rivers and similar bodies of water. The loss of this water affects people who use these as a water source. In the process of taking this water, several aquatic animals, such as fish are killed.
While boiling the water for natural gas, many pollutants and a lot of heat is/are created in it. It is afterward, thrown back into the rivers.
Constructing power plants of natural gas, many times destroys natural habitats.
It also causes:
erosion
landslides
Although some people believe it is renewable energy source, nuclear power is a non renewable energy source that uses
fission
to create energy and electricity.
How does it work?
When a nuclear reactor makes energy, it occurs because of nuclear fission. This means that atoms are split into smaller particles.
Uranium
is used as fuel for this reaction because it is unstable enough to break down. When this happens, it produces a huge amount of heat, which then spins a turbine connected to a generator and creates electricity.
What is it used for?
Nuclear power is mainly used to produce
electricity
, but it has also been used for less friendly purposes. Atomic bombs use the same principles of nuclear fission. Also, theories of nuclear fission are used in medicine very often as well as the radiation it produces, to help treat cancer.
Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock made up mostly of
carbon
. It was formed more or less the same as petroleum and natural gas; dirt and plant remains were buried under many layers of earth and converted into coal after many years of pressure and heat. Coal is extracted from the earth through
mining
, usually with large machinery.
Coal doesn't really have as many uses as petroleum and other resources. It is used for the production of
electricity and heat,
as well as to make
plastics, medicines and synthetic fibers.
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